Life Span

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Lifespan Psychology Power Point Lecture, Chapter 1, Module 1.1 - Presentation Transcript 1. Chapter 1: Introduction Module 1.1 Beginnings
2. What is Lifespan Development? • Lifespan Development is the field of study that examines patterns of growth, change, and stability in behavior that occur throughout the entire lifespan. 3. Things to keep in mind about Lifespan Psychology: • Lifespan Psychology is a scientific, developmental approach that focuses on human development • Scientists who study the lifespan know that neither heredity nor environment alone can account for the full range of human development • Development is a continuing process throughout the lifespan • Every period of life contains potential for growth and decline in abilities 4. Three Major Areas of Study in Lifespan Development • Physical development • Cognitive development • Personality and Social development 5. Age and Range of Lifespan Psychology Lifespan: From conception to death Divided into these age periods of study: • Prenatal period • Infancy • Toddlerhood/Preschool • Middle childhood • Adolescence • Young adulthood • Middle adulthood • Late adulthood • Death/Dying 6. Key Issues in Lifespan Psychology • We will discuss these issues all quarter: – Cultural factors – Continuous vs. discontinuous change – Critical periods vs. sensitive periods – Lifespan approach vs. particular periods approach – Nature vs. nurture 7. Major Theoretical Perspectives in Lifespan Psychology What is a Theory? A broad, organized explanation and prediction concerning phenomena of interest. Theories of Lifespan Development: • Psychodynamic • Behavioral • Cognitive • Humanistic • Contextual • Evolutionary 8. Psychodynamic Theory - Freud • Perspective: Psychodynamic • Theory: Psychoanalytic Theory • Theorist: Freud • What develops: Focus on inner person, unconscious forces act to determine personality and behavior • How development proceeds: Behavior motivated by inner forces, memories, and conflicts • Principles: – Personality has three aspects-id, ego, and superego – Psychosexual development involves series of stages-oral, anal, phallic, genital • Other key terms: pleasure principle, reality principle, fixation 9. Psychodynamic Theory - Erikson • Perspective: Psychodynamic • Theory: Psychosocial Theory • Theorist: Erikson • Primary focus: Focus on social interaction with others • How development proceeds: Development occurs through changes in interactions with and understanding of others and in self knowledge and understanding of members of society • Principles: – Psychosocial development involves eight distinct, fixed, universal stages. – Each stage presents crisis/conflict to be resolved; growth and change are lifelong • Other key terms: trust vs. mistrust, autonomy vs. shame and doubt, initiative vs. guilt, industry vs. inferiority, identity vs. role diffusion, intimacy vs. isolation, generativity vs. stagnation, ego-integrity vs. despair 10. Behavioral Theory – Classical Conditioning • Perspective: Behavioral • Theorist: John B. Watson • What develops: Focus on observable behavior and outside environmental stimuli • How development proceeds: Behavior is result of continuing exposure to specific environmental factors; developmental change is quantitative • Principles: Classical conditioning • Other key terms: Stimulus substitution; conditioned automatic response 11. Behavioral Theory – Operant Conditioning • Perspective: Behavioral • Theorist: B. F. Skinner • What develops: Focus on observable behavior and outside environmental stimuli • How development proceeds: Voluntary response is strengthened or weakened by association with negative or positive consequences • Principles: Operant conditioning • Other key terms: Deliberate actions on environment; behavior modification; reinforcement; punishment; extinguished behavior 12. Behavioral Theory – Social-Cognitive Learning • Perspective: Behavioral • Theorist: Albert Bandura...
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