The Arabian Peninsula
By: Minali Prasad
Due Date: December 7, 2011
Class Color: Sapphire
Table Number: 5
There are four different types of environments in the Arabian Peninsula.
Three-fourths of the Arabian Peninsula is desert. The desert has plains and plateaus. Temperatures can reach up to 120°F or drop down to below zero. There is 3 to 4 inches of rain per year with many droughts. Flash floods are caused by the annual rainfall.
The desert has many oases. Oases result in plants, shade, and water. An oasis begins when water deep underground travels to the surface. The soil around and oasis is very fertile, so it produces plant life like grass and shrubs. Oases range from a few acres to expansive areas. The water is beneficial for farmers as they can grow their crops there as well as trade them.
The coastal plain is surrounded by the Red Sea, the Arabian Sea, and the Persian Gulf. The coastal plain varies from 5- 40 miles from the heart of Arabia. There are many cliffs along the shore. The damp, moist air is the result of regular rain. Sometimes, water fills the riverbeds that intercept the coastal plains. Farmers grow crops on the coastal plains. Traders also benefit from the coastal plains because there are seaports.
The mountain ranges line the western edge of the Arabian Peninsula. Their altitude is from 1,000 feet to 12,000 feet high. The mountains have 20 inches of rainfall each year because of moist winds from the Southern Ocean. The mountain ranges stay cool by rain and elevation. Winter brings frost and fills the riverbeds with water. Farmers use dams and irrigation systems to help grow their crops.
Muhammad was a prophet which meant he was a messenger of God. Muhammad was important to Islamic faith because he introduced the belief in one God, also called monotheism. Before Muhammad, people living in the Arabian Peninsula were polytheists which means they believed in more than one God.
Muhammad was born in Mecca, a town that grew wealthy off of trade. At that time, Arabia was only united by culture, mostly language. Multiple families ruled the city whereas clans could only live in the city of Mecca. Mecca was a popular destination for pilgrimages. Arabs either lived in the cities or the deserts which was ruled by tribes.
Muhammad’s tribe was Hashim. Hashim took notice of his birth since his father had died. Muhammad’s mother sent him to live with wandering nomads who taught him Arabic traditions. At age six, Muhammad returned to the city, but soon his mother died. After his grandfather’s death, Muhammad was left in the care of his uncle, Abu Talib. During his childhood, Muhammad raised his family’s sheep and goats. Later, at age twelve, Muhammad experienced place farther out than the deserts on a trading journey with his uncle. As a result of his numerous trading journeys, Muhammad became a merchant. He was described as “trustworthy”. Fifteen years later, Muhammad was notified, by the angel Gabriel, that he was the messenger of God. Khadijah, his wife, convinced him convert others to the religion of Islam. Though most people believed him, some clans rejected his faith and boycotted the Hashim clan. When it became too dangerous, Muhammad moved to Yathrib on a journey called hijrah. Yathrib was renamed Madinah. Makkans tried to siege Madinah but failed. In 632, Muhammad traveled on his last pilgrimage to Mecca and gave his Last Sermon.
Muhammad was important to the Islamic faith because he united Arabia with religion, set an example for Muslims on how to live and introduced Islam into Arabia.
The “five pillars of Islam” are the five basic rules of worship for the Islamic faith. These ideas are faith, prayer, charity, fasting, and making pilgrimages to Mecca. Muslims today still follow the five pillars of faith.
The first pillar of Islam is Shahadah. Shahadah is the declaration of faith in which Muslims identify themselves as monotheists. They also declare...
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