Life in a Big City

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Modulus of elasticity: The ratio of the stress applied to a body to the strain those results in the body in response to it. The modulus of elasticity of a material is a measure of its stiffness and for most materials remains constant over a range of stress. .   Material| Elastic Modulus|

| MPa| psi|
Steel| 200,000| 30,000,000|
Poisson ratio
It is the negative ratio of transverse to axial strain. In fact, when a sample object is stretched (or squeezed), to an extension (or contraction) in the direction of the applied load, it corresponds a contraction (or extension) in a direction perpendicular to the applied load. The ratio between these two quantities is the Poisson's ratio. Material| Poisson's Ratio|

Concrete| 0.1 - 0.2|
tainless Steel 18-8| 0.305|
Steel, cast| 0.265|
Steel, Cold-rolled| 0.287|
Steel, high carbon| 0.295|
Steel, mild| 0.303|

Thermal expansion
It is the tendency of matter to change in volume in response to a change in temperature

Product| Linear Temperature ExpansionCoefficient
- α-|
| (10-6 m/m K)| (10-6 in/in oF)|

Concrete| 14.5| 8.0|
Steel| 13.0| 7.3|
| | |

Shear Modulus or Modulus of Rigidity
Material| Shear Modulus|
| (106 psi)| (GPa)|
Modulus of Rigidity (or Shear Modulus) is the coefficient of elasticity for a shearing force. It is defined as "the ratio of shear stress to the displacement per unit sample length (shear strain)" .

Concrete| 3.0| 21|

Structural Steel| 11.5| 79.3|
Stainless Steel| 11.2| 77.2|
Steel, Cast| 11.3| 78|
Steel, Cold-rolled| 10.9| 75|

YIELD STRENGTH 
The yield strength or yield point of a material   is defined in engineering  and material science as the stress   at which a material begins to deform plastically. Material| Yield strength
(MPa)| Ultimate strength
(MPa)| Density
(g/cm³)|
Steel, API 5L X65 (Fikret Mert Veral)| 448| 531| 7.8|
Steel, high strength...
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