Life Expectancy at Birth

Topics: Water supply, Drinking water, Water Pages: 25 (9302 words) Published: May 12, 2013
Life expectancy at birth (years)|
Country| 2000| 2001| 2002| 2003| 2004| 2005| 2006| 2007| 2008| 2009| 2010| 2011| 2012| Australia| 79.75| 79.87| 80| 80.13| 80.26| 80.39| 80.5| 80.62| 81.53| 81.63| 81.72| 81.81| 81.9|

Definition of Life expectancy at birth: This entry contains the average number of years to be lived by a group of people born in the same year, if mortality at each age remains constant in the future. The entry includes total population as well as the male and female components. Life expectancy at birth is also a measure of overall quality of life in a country and summarizes the mortality at all ages. It can also be thought of as indicating the potential return on investment in human capital and is necessary for the calculation of various actuarial measures.|

Water supply and sanitation in Australia
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Australia: Water and Sanitation|
Water coverage (broad definition)| 100%| |
Sanitation coverage (broad definition)| 100%| |
Continuity of supply (%)| Mostly continuous| |
Average residential water use (l/p/d)| 191 liter/person/day<(2007) [1]| | Average domestic water and sewer bill| A$60/month or US$46/month[2]| | Share of household metering| n/a| |
Annual investment in WSS| A$2 bn/US$1.74 bn (2007–08) or US$81/capita[3]| | Share of self-financing by utilities| High| |
Share of tax-financing| Low| |
Share of external financing| None| |
Decentralisation to municipalities| In some states (primarily in Queensland and Tasmania)| | National water and sanitation company| State water and sanitation companies| | Water and sanitation regulator| No| |

Responsibility for policy setting| Share between states/territories and the Commonwealth (national government)| | Sector law| No| |
Number of urban service providers| > 33| |
Number of rural service providers| n/a| |
Water supply and sanitation in Australia is universal and of good quality. As the country's supply of freshwater is increasingly vulnerable to droughts, possibly as a result of climate change, there is an emphasis on water conservation and various regions have imposed restrictions on the use of water. In 2006, Perth became the first Australian city to operate a seawater desalination plant, the Kwinana Desalination Plant, to reduce the city's vulnerability to droughts. More plants are planned or are under construction in Sydney, the Gold Coast, Melbourne, and Adelaide. The use of reclaimed water is also increasingly common. However, some desalination plants were put in stand-by modes in 2010 following above average rainfall levels and floods in 2010. Governments of Australian states and territories, through state-owned companies, are in charge of service provision in Western Australia, South Australia and the Northern Territory, while utilities owned by local governments provide services in parts of Queensland and Tasmania. In Victoria, New South Wales and Southeast Queensland state-owned utilities provide bulk water, which is then distributed by utilities owned by local government. The Minister for Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities is responsible for water policies at the federal level. Contents[hide] * 1 Water resources and water use * 1.1 Adelaide * 1.2 Brisbane and Gold Coast * 1.3 Canberra * 1.4 Melbourne * 1.5 Perth * 1.6 Sydney * 2 Responsibility for water supply and sanitation * 2.1 Policy and regulation * 2.2 Service provision * 3 Community consultation * 4 Water tariffs * 5 Investment * 6 Demand management and water conservation * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links| [edit] Water resources and water use

Australia is the driest inhabited continent on Earth, and among the world’s highest consumers of water.[4] Amongst OECD nations...
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