According to the latest statistics the life expectancy in UK is 79.9 which is much better when compared to other nations(UK national statistics,2008).The government has introduced several policies to increase the quality of life of the people. In this assignment am going to have a brief look on the different health indicators in UK and the challenges faced by health care team in meeting those needs.
“Life expectancy is the expected number of years of life remaining at a given age(Wikipedia)". It is considered to be the main factor that determines a nations health. There have been great changes in the health patterns of people in the UK due to increased intake of nutritional foods and improvements in healthcare. Life expectancy in England is now at its highest recorded rate which is 77.9 for males and 82 for females. It is clear that the life expectancy of males are much lower when compared to females (UK national statistics,2008).
Lets have a look at the different patterns of morbidity and mortality rates in UK. The total number of deaths in a given population is called mortality rate and morbidity is the state of disease or disability due to any cause. Mortality is directly related to morbidity. The cause of morbidity and mortality rates vary between different age groups and sexes (Wikipedia).
Infant mortality rate is the number of deaths of infants under one year old per 1000 live births.(Wikipedia ). For past few years the infant mortality rate has decreased dramatically in the United Kingdom. There are several factors that affect the infant mortality rate like low birth weight, age of mother, mothers country of birth, the number of previous children born etc. A study conducted in 2008 found that babies of mothers aged less than 20 years of age are at high risk than babies born for older mothers(National statistics UK, 2008).
Circulatory diseases like stroke and heart disease is the main cause of death in England. Men are more likely to die by circulatory diseases than females. In 2003 300 per 100,000 males and 190 per 100,000 females were died due to circulatory diseases. In both males and females heart disease is the main cause of death than stroke (National statistics UK, 2008). .
In UK cancer is the next main cause of death. For about 27% that is 1 in 4 deaths are happening by cancer. In 2008 156,723 (30% of men and 25% women) cancer deaths are recorded in UK. The most important cause of death by cancer is smoking. For about 90% of the deaths from lung cancer is caused by smoking. Even though higher death rates are in older people a good proportion of younger people also die due to cancer. Cancer is found to be the most common cause of death in both genders aged between 45 to 64 with death rates of 240 per 100,000 in male and 213 per 100,000 in female (National statistics UK, 2008).
During the start of 20th century the mortality rates for infectious and respiratory diseases decreased dramatically. But in 1918 to 1919 an influenza took the lives of many people in England. After that for the last 50 years mortality rates from circulatory diseases declined dramatically. (National statistics UK,2008)
The causes for morbidity varies depending on the age and gender. Some of the main reasons for morbidity are obesity, smoking and lifestyle (National statistics UK, 2008). Arthritis and rheumatism are the most common disease that are found mainly in women and this also increases in both genders with age. In Britain the numbers of people with these diseases were very few before age 44. Then there is a massive increase in the prevalence of this disease due to age. The disease rate in females then increased more rapidly than in men. The chances of having this disease are twice in women aged between 65 to 74 than in men due to hormonal variations (National statistics UK, 2008).
Socio economic inequalities:
In the current world it is impossible for everyone to enjoy the same benefits as...