1. Introduction Life cycle assessment (LCA), i.e. the systematic inventory and evaluation of environmental impacts of a product “from the cradle to the grave”, is an emerging tool. On the one hand it is used by governments, e.g. when establishing ecolabelling criteria for certain product groups or when deﬁning mandatory re-use or recycling quotas as done in the context of the German packaging ordinance. On the other hand it is increasingly applied by companies for the identiﬁcation of environmental weak spots in products and for product development [1–3]1. But has the use of this new and promising tool ever yielded environmental improvements? ¨ The IOW has addressed this question in a project funded by the Ministry of Environment and Transport of Baden-Wurttemberg. The core of our research has ¨ been the description and evaluation of eight case studies
from different industrial branches (Table 1) of which two will be brieﬂy presented below2.
¨ 2. The food example—“Neumarkter Lammsbrau” The “Neumarkter Lammsbrau” is a small brewery that ¨ preponderantly supplies regional markets in Bavaria. It has about 80 employees and an annual beverage output of 8,000,000 liters. Its main product is beer from raw materials that are organically grown. It is the market leader among German suppliers of eco-beer with a market share of 60%. Due to the initiative of its managing director, the environmental proﬁle of activities was ﬁrst documented in a comprehensive ecobalance starting in 1991 and ﬁn¨ ished in 1992. According to the IOW methodology (see Hallay and Pfriem ) an ecobalance is divided into a “factory-”, “process-”, “product chain-” and “locationbalance”. This concept does not completely coincide with that of LCA. It does, however, provide product-
* Corresponding author. Tel: 49-6221-649160; Fax: 49-622127060; E-mail: email@example.com 1 A comprehensive and very detailed overview of the different applications of LCA is given in Curran . 0959-6526/98/$19.00 © 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. PII: S 0 9 5 9 - 6 5 2 6 ( 9 8 ) 0 0 0 2 5 - 0
2 The ﬁndings of the project have been summarised in Rubik et al. , Grotz and Scholl [3,6]. Six of the eight case studies are published in Grotz and Scholl .
G.U. Scholl, S. Nisius / Journal of Cleaner Production 6 (1998) 247–252
Table 1 Characterisation of case studies Company AEG Hausgerate GmbH, Nurnberg ¨ ¨ Augsburger Kammgarn Spinnerei AG, Augsburg Junkers, Subsidiary of Bosch GmbH, Wernau a.N. Byk Gulden AG, Singen Donau Tufting GmbH and Co KG, Denkendorf Grammer AG, Amberg Henkel KGaA, Dusseldorf ¨ Neumarkter Lammsbrau, Neumarkt ¨ Industry branch Electronics Textile industry Electronics Chemical industry Textile industry Furniture Chemicals and consumer goods Food Subject of the LCA Vacuum cleaner tube Yarn Transport packaging Packaging Carpets Ofﬁce chair Laundry detergents (tensides) Beer
¨ IOW-ecobalance methodology and its product-related modules.
related environmental data that can be used to assess the environmental...