*STRUCTURALISM (Ferdynand de Saussure)
Main tenets: Language has a structure (in which each elements interact), it is a system of signs (noise is language only when it express or communicates ideas. Sign- car->signifier- /ka:r/ physical dimension of language, signified- car as a thing, The signified is what these visible/audible aspects mean to us.) two levels of language: Langue( abstract system) and parole (actual speech)
*BEHAVIOURISM(John B. Watson)
Lg learning is based on a habit formation
• Stimulus -> Response -> Reinforment :positive (reward) or negative (punishment) • Language is acquired through imitation creativity. Trial-and-error method (Ivan Pavlov) • Problems (among others)
o language is creative
o knowledge of language is very complex (show language puzzles from intro notes) o no clear evidence that parents consistently reward "good" language and not "bad" language *COGNITIVISM (Chomsky)
LAD- Language Acquisition Device : Every child when born is able to acquire any surrounding language. We acquire lg through interaction with community. A child is constantly exposed to the language, and it developes its own language system. Interactionism( interaction with community)
* L1 ACQUISITION vs. L2 LEARNING
|L1 ACQUISITION |L2 LEARNING | |Acquired from birth |Learned with delay | |subconscious |conscious | |Bound to be successful |Not necessarily successful | |3-4 years are necessary to acquire |No limit | |Not much effort |A lot of effort is recquired |
*The role of age in L2 (Jean Piaget’s theory of cognitive development)
It is a comprehensive theory about the nature and development of human intelligence
1. Sensorimotor stage (birth- 2) sense and motorial, doesn’t have too much influence on lg acquisition
2.Preopeniration stage (2-7) child isn’t cognitively developed. It must see something to understand. If doesn’t so something it simply don’t exist for the child.
Cognitive operations; generalizations, concluding, analyzing, ordering.
3. Operational stage:
4. Concrete operational stage: children begin to reason logically, and organize thoughts coherently. However, they can only think about actual physical objects, and cannot handle abstract reasoning. They have difficulty understanding abstract or hypothetical concepts.
5. Formal operational stage: (from 11- adulthood) The formal operational stage is characterized by the ability to formulate hypotheses and systematically test them to arrive at an answer to a problem.
|MOTHERESE |TEACHER’S TALK | |diminutives |No diminutives | |Simple, common words |Common words | |Slow speech | |Simple grammar | |Exaggerated intonation |Normal intonation |...
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