Lexicology

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LEXICOLOGY
1. Principles of general linguistics
2. The structure of English words
3. Derivation as a major word-building pattern
4. Compounding. Classification of compounding
5. Shortening and abbreviation
6. Conversion. Types of conversion
7. Minor types (доп. способы) of word-building
8. The problem of meaning
9. Types of meaning
10. Change of meaning
11. Transfer of meaning (metaphor, metonymy)
12. Polysemy or plurality of meaning
13. Homonyms, classification of homonyms
14. Synonyms, types of synonyms
15. Antonyms
16. Phraseology
17. Borrowings in English

1. Principles of general linguistics
Lexicology is of Greek origin (“Lexis” – word, “logos” – science). It studies words and expressions in respect to their structure, meaning and origin. In other words the structure of words is studied in morphology, the meaning in semantics and origin in etymology. Lexicology

Lexis Logos Structure (Morphology) Meaning (Semantics) Origin (Etymology)

Lexicology is based on the general principles of linguistics. The word is the basic unit of a language.
1) Language is a social phenomena
2) Language is the unity of forms and content

There are two approaches:
1. Synchronic – studies the language at the certain period of development. 2. Diachronic – studies the changes in the language through time.

2. The structure of English words
From the point of view of the structure all words can be divided into: * simple
* derived
* compound

Simple words consist of one root
Derived words consist of morphemes (smallest meaningful units).

Functional Derivational

Gr. endings Suffixes Prefixes (stand after (stand before the root) the root) justice unlucky

The stem divides a part of the word which remains unchanged throughout its paradigm. Paradigm is the system of grammatical forms, characteristics of the word. The opposition of the stem (основа) and the affix lies at the basis of morphological analysis, which is called the analysis into Immediate Constituents (ICs). According to this analysis a derived word is divided into such a way. Enlightenment – просвещение

It’s a formal procedure. Later on this procedure was used in Semantics. to enlarge – to make larger
to ensure – to make sure
to encircle – to put in a circle
Compound words consist of two or more items.
Seamen – semi-affix (полу-афекс)
E.g. waterproof, soundproof, shockproof
Semi-prefix
E.g. wellbeing, well-mannered
Beside morphemes proper there are allomorphs. They are positional variants of the same morpheme. E.g. action , provision, liberation

3. Derivation as a major word-building pattern
Derivation – is creating words by means of adding suffixes or prefixes to the root morpheme. One suffixes were independent words “dom” meant condition (freedom), “hood” meant a state (childhood), “ship” meant shape (friendship). But in the cost of time they had lost their independence and became parts of words. Suffixes can be characterized by the 4 criteria’s:

* by grammatical meaning (noun-forming, verb-forming, adjective-forming, adverb-forming); * by origin ( Germanic, Romanic and Greek);
* by the degree of productivity (productive, non-productive); * by lexical meaning.
Noun-forming sentences:
* the dual of the action
* the action itself
* the state
* diminutive (уменьшит.)
* derogatory

6. Conversion. Types of conversion
Conversion – is the formation of words into another part of speech by means of changing the grammatical paradigm of the original word. The term “conversion” is not quite précised, because the previous word (a word from which a new word...
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