The main aim of this graduation paper is to show lexical peculiarities in modern political discourse.
The structure of the given graduation paper is the following: an introduction, two chapters, a conclusion and a bibliography. The aim of the first chapter entitled «The nature of political discourse» is to give a brief survey of the nature of Political discourse and lexical peculiarities of political discourse analysis.
Discourse refers to expressing oneself using words. Discourses are used in everyday contexts for building power and knowledge, for regulation and normalization, for the development of new knowledge and power relations, and for control. Discourse has a social nature and it matters to people as it is used all the time. What all discourse analyses share is their basis in texts.
The study of political discourse has been around for as long as politics itself. Political discourse analysis is a field of discourse analysis which focuses on discourse in political forums (such as debates, speeches, and hearings). Politicians in this sense are the group of people who are being paid for their (political) activities, and who are being elected or appointed (or self-designated) as the central players in the polity. Linguists are interested in the words and structures politicians use to create a certain view of the world. This word view will be directly linked to their purpose and audience and will affect the language they choose in order to achieve a set goal. Lexical and syntactical choices can affect the voters, persuading them to vote for certain policies or personalities. Political language can be recognized in a variety of forms but in each case lexical and syntactical choices are directly linked to the audience, purpose and context of the discourse. Politicians aim to represent society as it really is, they can use language to adapt reality to suit their purposes. It is therefore useful to identify any use of implication or secondary meaning. This allows politicians to state the truth while using words that can be interpreted in more than one way. In the second chapter we are going to analyze four inaugural speeches in order to show the lexical peculiarities of political speeches.
THE NATURE OF POLITICAL DISCOURSE
1.1 Political Discourse Analysis
Originally the word 'discourse' comes from Latin 'discursus' which denoted 'conversation, speech'. Thus understood, however, discourse refers to too wide an area of human life.
Discourse refers to expressing oneself using words. Discourses are used in everyday contexts for building power and knowledge, for regulation and normalization, for the development of new knowledge and power relations, and for control (excess influence or authority of one nation over another). Discourse analysis is concerned with studying and analyzing written texts and spoken words to reveal the discursive sources of power, dominance, inequality, and bias and how these sources are initiated, maintained, reproduced, and transformed within specific social, economic, political, and historical contexts (van. Dijk). It tries to illuminate ways in which the dominant forces in a society construct versions of reality that favor their interests.
What all discourse analyses share is their basis in texts, however broadly ‘text’ is defined. Beyond written texts and multi-modal texts discourse analysts also consider the textuality of talk, cities, bodies, buildings and music. Some analyses flow over many books and historical archives, whereas others do fine-grained analysis of a small number of texts.
According to Felicitas Macgilchris there are a numberof approaches to discourse analysis: 1. Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA)
2. Sociocognitive Discourse Studies
3. Political Discourse Analysis
4. Discursive Psychology
5. Conversational Analysis
6. Laclau and Mouffe’s Discourse Theory...