The Historical Development and Philosophy of Person Centred Counselling.3 Criteria 2
The key concepts, principles and practice of the model.5 Criteria 3
The concept of self and the development of self-concept.10 Criteria 4
Comparisons of Counselling Models.12
The dangers of using methods and techniques without adequate training.15
The Historical Development and Philosophy of Person Centred Counselling. Carl Rogers (1902-87) was the founder of the client-centred or person-centred approach to counselling and therapy. (McLeod 2001) As a student, Rogers received training from Jessie Taft, a follower of Otto Rank (sollod, 1978, cited in McLeod, 2001) in pschodynamically orientated therapy, but through his years spent at Rochester (1928-40) largely evolved his own distinctive approach. McLeod (2001). Rogers ideas of counselling are known by the names of ‘non-directive’ ‘client-centred’ ‘person-centred’ or ‘Rogerian’. The emphasis being placed on the ‘here and now’ experiences of the client, rather than their childhood events or future behaviour. Rogers believes that a human’s personality is constructive and good and has the ability to strive towards their full potential, becoming fully functional through self- healing, with influences of existential and phenomenological philosophy, but to achieve this, the person must be provided with the right conditions for growth (the three core conditions- empathy, congruence and unconditional positive regard) in 1957 Rogers carried out major research to validate the use of using these core conditions. Other influential figures that shared these views were Abraham Maslow (the self-actualisation theory), Charlotte Buhler and Sydney Jourard. Rogers carried out research using recordings and transcriptions of therapy sessions, studying the differences when a counsellor was directive and non-directive towards a client. Rogers gave a talk in 1940 ‘New Concepts in Psychotherapy’ where he suggested that therapy would be most helpful to a client by allowing them to find their own solutions, by seeing the client as the expert and not the therapist. When the war was ending in 1945, there became a demand for help for the returning traumatised soldiers, Rogers nondirective approach was used and became quickly established as a non-medical form of counselling in the U.S.A. McLeod (2001) These have been the most widely used orientations of counselling and therapy over the past fifty years and the methods are also integrated into other methods. Counselling skills can be recognised in professions such as Doctors, Nurses, Teachers, Voluntary organisations and others.
The key concepts, principles and practice of the model.
The Counselling Relationship. (The Therapeutic Relationship) For counselling sessions to be successful, the relationship between client and counsellor is paramount. Person Centred counselling is based on equality, where the client and therapist work on an equal level to each other. It concentrates on the ‘here and now’ of a person’s life and is non-directive. If a person’s experiences have been denied, defined or discounted by others, then this may cause the person emotional problems, but by entering into a relationship whereby the person feels fully accepted and valued, a healing process can begin. As summarised by Rogers (1957-95) McLeod (2001) in his formulation of the ‘necessary and sufficient conditions of therapeutic personality change’ certain characteristics and conditions need to exist and continue over a period of time for constructive personality change to occur: 1. Two persons are in psychological contact.
2. The first (client) is in a state of incongruence, being vulnerable and anxious. 3. The second person (therapist) is congruent or integrated in the relationship. 4. The...