Understanding the Process and Experience of Dementia.
A1 Describe the causes of all the different types of Dementia
The brain is a very complex organ and it is divided up into different areas that control bodily functions. The brain contains at least 100 billion cells. In dementia some of these cells stop working. The part of the brain this occurs in will affect how that person thinks, remembers and communicates. Alzheimer's disease, first described by the German neurologist Alois Alzheimer, is a physical disease affecting the brain. During the course of the disease, protein 'plaques' and 'tangles' develop in the structure of the brain, leading to the death of brain cells. People with Alzheimer's also have a shortage of some important chemicals in their brain. These chemicals are involved with the transmission of messages within the brain. Alzheimers is a progressive disease which means that over time more parts of the brain are damaged. As this happens the sypstoms become more severe
Vascular dementia is the second most common form of dementia after Alzheimer’s disease. It is caused by problems in the supply of blood to the brain. There are factsheets will help you to understand vascular dementia by explaining the causes, symptoms and treatments available. The term 'dementia' is used to describe a set of sypstoms that occur when the brain is damaged by specific diseases. These diseases include Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Someone with dementia may experience loss of memory, mood changes, and problems with language, reasoning and decision making. Being told that you or a loved one has vascular dementia can be very difficult and you may experience a range of different emotions as time goes on. There is support available if you need it.
Creutzfeldt-jakob disease (CJD)
CJD is a form of dementia caused by a prion disease. Prions are proteins which are found in mammals. When these proteins cluster together in the brain, they cause brain cells to die. When these cells die they leave sponge like holes called spongiosis. This damage to the brain causes neurological difficulties and dementia. Sporadic cjd
Althiugh these conditions are rare, their prognosis is very poor. The affected person’s life expectancy is reduced dramaticaly, with death occuring usually between 6 to 24 months from early diagnosis. The disease can take many years from the time it infects a person to it causing recognisable symptoms. The cause of sporadic cjd is unknown and its onset is very fast it affect mostly people over the age of fifty and can cause death within a matter of months.
Familial cjd is an inherited form of the diseas. Its symptoms usually affect the person at an early age from 20 to 60 years. Death occurs between 2 and 10 years of symptoms beginning. The symptoms and course of familial CJD will vary depending on the type of Prp mutation involved. There may even be a great variation in the symptoms within affected members of the same family. Sometimes, the symptom pattern is similar to that found in sporadic CJD, namely: early symptoms may be like those of depression-mood swings, memory lapses, social withdrawal and lack of interest. However rapid progression to dementia and neurological symptoms are distinctive. Within weeks the patient may become unsteady on their feet, lacking in coordination and clumsy. Later symptoms may include blurred vision or even blindness, rigidity in the limbs, sudden jerky movements and incontinence. Difficulty in speaking, slurred speech and difficulty in swallowing may also occur.
Iatrogenic cjd occurs as a result of comtaminated blood or tissue entering the body, this can take place with corneal transplants, grafts or the use of growth hormones. Iatrogenic CJD may be transmitted intracerebrally, i.e. directly into the brain (example: contamination of surgical...