Task 6- Briefly outline the social and emotional development of children from birth to sixteen and the influences which might affect development?
The social and emotional development of a childs identity and self image starts from birth. In the first five years of a childs life , children learn how to interact with others, learn what is acceptable. Every child is unique and they all develope at their own pace. Birth to 3 years- As a baby a child will overcome lots of obsticles such as hand to hand co-ordination, learning to sit up and stand, learning to feed themselves, learning to put words together. Children learn to play alongside instead of with other children, they test behaviours as they learn what is right and wrong. They need lots of emotional support from their parents.
Ages 3-6 years- At this age the children will have a short attention span, They are learning self awareness and imagination, what is socially acceptable behaviour and what is not. The child will start to develope more language and communication skills and they will be starting to assert their own identity.
Age 7, They will be identifying feelings and emotions, identifying dangerous situations and who to go to for help. They will be learning to identify the difference between 'needs' and 'wants'.
Age 8, The child will be able to express emotions in appropriate ways i.e appreciation, anger. Calm themselves and control strong emotions. Eight year olds will be proud of the fact they are able to do many things on their own and will express a desire for privacy. At the same time they will still need guidence and support from their parents.They may compare themselves to their friends and peers.
Ages 9-12 , Children should have good communication skills, i.e communication care consideration and respect. Identify personal skills, recognise the difference between positive and negative friendships and understand the importance of family.
Ages 12-16- this is a time where children reach sexual maturity and form an adult identity. During adolescence , physical changes in height and weight are usually a noticable change. Mood swings are common due to the increase in hormones. Between 12 and 16, they begin to imagine the possibilities life holds and start to set personal goals.
Influences which may affect development in children include- -Stress
-Genetic illnesses, disorders and allergies
-The childs background and where they may live
-The influence of adults around the child
-Religious social and economic factors.
How might adults within a school setting encourage pupils to recognise and express thier own emotions? What are the possible signs and possible causes of emotional distress?
Within school teachers can encourage children to recognise and express their emotions through role playing, art & design, drama, music, poatry and stories. These can provide an important opportunity for developing self confidence. An example of this is circle time sessions, these provide social and emotional learning. The class of pupils sit in a circle, exchanging ideas and feelings on different topics which are important to them . As they are sat in a circle, there is no leader, they are all equal and all have the opportunity to speak. Pupils can bring their own ideas or concerns to the circle and offer encouragement to others. Most schools have a school council where pupils can take part in desicion making. Students can bring up school improvement issues or issues affecting the classroom.
Possible causes of emotional distress-
-Problems at school, bullying or struggling with the work
-Feeling left out and lonely, or having trouble making friends -Problems at home i.e parents not getting along and arguing. Maybe the parents have split up or the child has a new family member. -Death of a pet or relative
Possible signs of emotional distress-
-Refusing to go to school