The expectancy theory was developed by Victor H. Vroom in 1964 as a systematic explanation of individual motivation within the workplace. This theory put forth three key components: expectancy, performance, and valence. From the base component of the theory, which is expectancy, behavior is built by an individual’s value of the reward or valence. Vroom’s theory of expectancy is used by manager to understand how individual employees are motivated and how they will respond to rewards closely tied to the tasks given. Expectancy is proposed to be an individual’s understanding of how their effort leads to a given performance level. Vroom put forth in his theory that individuals believe the more effort put into a task or objective, the better the performance on the task. Therefore, effort leads to performance or E P. This effort is closely related to the individual’s belief that they can perform the given task (self-efficacy), whether they believe the task is perceived obtainable, and the individual can control the goal or performance. If the result of a strong effort is a good or exceptional performance, than the result of good performance should be a given outcome, P O. This outcome should be a reward tied closely to the task and performance. A reward that is tied significant to the performance will help to motivate the individual’s effort. The third key factor of Vroom’s expectancy theory is valence. Valence refers to how much value the individual places on the reward, V(R). Again, the reward should be tied to the outcome, but without a perceived value by the individuals, performance will not put forth any effort to begin with. A summary of the Vroom’s expectancy is seen with the following notation. (Web site, Expectancy Theory, 2013) Expectancy: Effort Performance (EP) Instrumentality: Performance Outcome (PO) Valence: V(R)
In the given scenario, after speaking with supervisor A’s employees, supervisor B has identified three major issues that...
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