Farrell, Thomas S.C.(2002) Lesson planning in: Methodology in Language Teaching. Cambridge. Cambridge University Press.
A unit plan is a series of related lesson around a specific theme such as “the family”, “money”, etc. Planning daily lessons is the end result of a complex planning process that includes the yearly, term and unit plans. A daily lesson plan is a written description of how students will move toward attaining specific objectives. It describes the teaching behavior that will result in student learning. According to Richards “the success with which a teacher conducts a lesson is often thought to depend on the effectiveness with which the lesson was planned”. As a result planning helps the teacher to: * Think about the content, materials, sequencing, timing of the class and the activities implemented. * Provide security
* Keep a log of the taught items
* Teach the class in case there has to be a substitute.
There are different models of lesson planning. The oldest one is the one of Tyler (1949) in which the objectives have to be specified, the learning activities have to be selected and the method of evaluation is specified. Another model is Yinger´s (1980) which follows a series of stages which starts from the problem conception to discover the goals, knowledge and experience of the teacher and continues with the stage of problem solution to end up with the implementation and evaluation of the class. However, research has found that teachers do not always follow the sequence of activities in a rigid way, and sometimes get involved in teaching routines or focus on particular students and the class is deviated. Some reasons to deviate the plan are:
* To serve a common good
* To further the lesson
* To accommodate to the learner´s styles
* To teach to the moment
* Promote students´ involvement
* Distribute the wealth
HOW TO PLAN A LESSON
Developing the plan
The first step is to...