As proposed by Dymoke and Harrison, good lesson planning is essential to successful teaching in so far as stating, `It is often the case that poor teaching, classroom management and behaviour stem from lack of explicit planning` (2008, p.122) It is suggested then, that thorough planning is fundamental to the successful learning of pupils in many ways. Whilst allowing the teacher to follow a process of thinking, providing a mental practice session if you like, the act of planning therefore becomes an imperative aid for both student and teacher. Throughout this rationale, the key elements and processes of meeting planning requirements will be discussed with specific reference to a series of three progressive examples (see appendix). The lessons have been created with a view towards teaching pupils dance at Key Stage 3 within a unit of six lessons. The extensive elements of lesson planning in this sense include: class and subject details, learning objectives, differentiated learning outcomes, student targets in relation to standards and previous lesson evaluation, pupil learning activities, teaching role, strategies and points, organisation and risk assessment, assessment for learning strategies and finally lesson evaluation to include targets for the next lesson and reflection of teaching, management and organisation. Dymoke and Harrison, highlight the necessity for teachers to consider the broader spectrum intended for pupils to be guided along, `in relation to both previous learning and future directions`. (2008, p.114) At this stage, however, the target group of thirty two year 7 pupils are at the beginning of their secondary education having attended a total of six dance lessons thus far. The key consideration here then may be to look at what they learned during their previous unit so as to ensure continuity and avoid unnecessary repetition. If teaching isolated lessons encourages a progressive thinking to be flawed, then it is important to consider the context of these lessons, understanding how they will be delivered in the grander scheme regarding their past and future learning experiences. So, is it important to structure lessons looking at the wider picture over perhaps whole units of work? It would seem so as suggested by Pollard,
` Long-term planning thus begins to address progression, breadth, balance, continuity, and coherence, both within and between subjects` (2009, p254) With reference to this idea, and particular target group they are in the introductory period of secondary education. Thus far having experienced how to identify and perform a number of basic actions, relationships; using canon and mirroring, the use of different levels and directions and the unit was based around the theme of the fairground. In the case for the specified lesson plans for this rationale, the progressive theme is based on cars. The reasoning behind this theme was to provide pupils with a learning context that offers scope for movement creation, actively engages boys in dance whilst forming a link between each lesson. Evidently, selecting a theme over a unit bodes well with Pollards` idea of providing continuity in learning also. When considering the nature of lesson planning, let us firstly look at the value of learning objectives. As a trainee teacher during my own placement it became clear from the outset that lesson objectives should be based on what the pupils will learn as opposed to simply documenting what they will do. My first effort involved pitching objectives in the lesson plan with teacher perspective in mind, documenting what the pupils will do. With reference to the nature of language used in lesson objective 1, it states that pupils are, `To use onomatopoeia as a starting point for movement creation related to the theme, cars` With the realisation that this objective relates towards what the pupils will do and not learn, then the following is more appropriate and should be amended for pupils, `To understand...
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