Why Does Urbanization Occur?
Summary: Provides an investigation into the economic, social, political and environmental factors causing urbanization.
Urbanisation is the process which has led to an increasing proportion of a country'spopulation living within urban areas. It is impossible to say exactly when the process began, but in Britain it was around the time of the industrial revolution. Many people moved from rural to urban areas in search of regular employment. The MEDC's around the world are all urbanised now, with annual growth rates of urbanisation still increasing, but sustainably. LEDC's however are still rapidly urbanising. In this essay I am going to look at all the factors that cause urbanisation and evaluate why it is occurring. The economic reasons behind urbanisation are mainly decided by industry. Industry is generally located in urban areas. Any industry needs to be close to other businesses to trade information and goods. Also any industry has a need for a very large workforce, which is provided for by the large population of the area. The industrial revolution played a major part in urbanisation of MEDC's. Employment was provided for thousands and the revolution provided a starting block for industry. Because industry started in urban areas it is much easier for other industries to set up in urban areas. It provides them with an advantage of being located near many other industries and services that are necessary. In LEDC's the economic reasons do include small industry and businesses but also the need for food and water. Urban areas provide many more services than rural areas and if the people of LEDC's could find work they would be able to buy food and water. In rural areas they would either have to produce their own food or have to travel quite a significantdistance to get what they need. People begin to grow tired of living in poverty and slaving over a farm that isn't producing effectively. Politically urbanisation has created a centralisation of power in MEDC's. In general any main government base is in an urban area (usually thecapital city). This works best for any government because this is where most things are going on in the country. The government has a major impact on what is going on around the country. In MEDC's 75% of thepopulation lives in urban areas. It seems best for any government to see what is going on in the country and be close to its people. Similarly in LEDC's the government in charge would find it much easier to operate in a country if it was right in the main part where food and resources would be more readily available. Also the government would be able to see what was going on in the country and would find it easier to collect taxes and improve the country. The fact that the government is located in urban areas contributes to the migration factors because many people would move for the services and jobs that a government provides. Environmental factors don't affect those living in MEDC's so much because they are generally rich enough to get hold of water, energy and food even if it isn't close because they can usually arrange a means of transport. However in LEDC's environmental factors are extremely important, people are sometimes forced to leave rural areas because of the poverty that is often faced. Also droughts are quite common which can leave a family with no food or water. Putting this into consideration, people often migrate. Socially, there are many reasons for urbanisation. In MEDC's people are attracted to specialist services and leisure activities. While these are readily available in urban areas, they are much harder to come by in rural areas. Some people may find that they would prefer to live closer to the services than have the problem of transport. This would be backed up by the fact that many people have jobs in urban areas and that people often think of the urban lifestyle as the modern way to live. The wealth of people in MEDC's must be taken into...
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