Memorial University of Newfoundland and Labrador
NURS-2700-081 (Nursing Theories - 40985) Dr. Suzan Banoub-Baddour October 19th, 2010
Application of Leininger Theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality The increasing cultural diversity of Canada demands the complex cultural specific or culturally congruent nursing care. Culture is a critical component that affects the attitudes and actions of people about their health and disease (George, 2010, P. 414). Each culture has different practices related to caring for sick people based upon their values, beliefs, and traditions. These practices among cultures with respect to care, health, and illness are extremely challenging for nurses to provide effective nursing care. Therefore, the understanding of different cultures is becoming extremely crucial for Canadian nurses. Dr. Madeline Leninger, a nurse and theorist, recognized the importance of an understanding and knowledge of culture for both the nurse’s and the patient’s. She developed a theory known as "Culture Care Diversity and Universality” which was the beginning of transcultural nursing (Course Notes, George 2010). Leininger described common practices across cultures as culture care universalities, and specific practices to a given culture as culture care diversities. For Leininger, the essence of nursing is caring. However, she emphasized to provide care from cultural perspectives. She elaborated that the patient can experience feelings of discomfort and helplessness if cultural care is not practiced (George 2010, 413). Therefore, nurses must embrace the concept of culturally congruent care for this increasingly diversified nation to promote effective nursing care. This paper focused on the development process of nursing care plan to provide culturally congruent care to a young Muslim mother. Mrs. H. is 28 years old, born in Pakistan, who migrated to Canada three years ago. She has diagnosed with gestational diabetes in the first trimester of her pregnancy and started on insulin. She would discharge from hospital after she will receive primary teaching of blood glucose monitoring. CLSC nurses will follow her up at home for next six weeks. Leininger’s Sunrise “Enabler” is a conceptual model to guide nursing judgments and activities to provide culturally congruent care. Nurses can utilize Leniniger`s concepts for holistic assessments of the patient to collect data for her physical, psychological, social and spiritual needs. According to Leininger, it is necessary to talk to patient about their beliefs and values of life. Nurses should do some research about patient`s culture. They will be able to relate influencing factors with patient`s health practices and concerns after knowing more about patient`s culture. They should not assume and stereotype that people migrate from the same country needs specific culture care. Nurses must discuss with the patient their current expectation from the staff and their past experiences with health care. Nurse must begin to collect relevant information to determine patient cultural specific needs from the beginning. Nurses must be able to perform nursing tasks while continuing to observe client behavior. Dennis and Small suggest that the following questions and techniques will assist a nurse to focus on culturological assessment: • How does the one identify oneself?
• Who answers nurse's questions? (The client or by a family member)
• Language of communication with nurses and between themself.