TS634 Principle of Christian Ethics
Submitted by Takaaki Tanaka
Student ID 5407040122
Principle of Christian Ethics
03 Utilitarianism (Reading Report)
The egoism focuses on the interest of individual. In contrast, the utilitarianism tries to consider the interest of everyone. It is said that this moral theory was started by Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) and was developed by John Stuart Mill (1806-1873). Bentham believed that all human being were controlled by pain and pleasure. And Bentham and Mill believed that more pleasure or happiness, the better. Therefore, they used “happiness” or “pleasure” as the important factor to make a moral theory. That is the base of the utilitarianism. What is the utilitarianism
Bentham and Mill were known as the people who use this moral theory to contribute to the social reform or personal liberty. They had interested in social policy. They believed that social policy should work for the good of all persons, that is, not only upper class but also the other lower class as well. However, in the reality, there are many conflicts among people. One social policy produces great interest for particular people but it doesn’t do for the other people. They believed that the best choice among people was one which promoted the interests of the great number. “Happiness or pleasure” and “the great number” are the key word in this theory. The greatest happiness or pleasure will bring us the right and best consequence, but suffering and unhappiness will bring us the wrong consequence. In simple way, we can say that we should choose something which makes many people happy. That is the basic moral principle of utilitarianism which is called “the principle of utility or the greatest happiness principle”.
In order to know amount of happiness, we need to measure the happiness and calculate the sum total of happiness. Otherwise, we cannot compare one situation with another. Bentham...