Legal Abortion in China

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Legal Abortion in China

Introduction

There are many problems that our world today has to face. Those problems don’t only have an effect to the country, but it can also affect us individuals. Those problems are drug addictions, murders, prostitutions, kidnappings, and etc. It also includes abortions.

Abortion is the termination of pregnancy by the removal or expulsion from the uterus of a fetus or embryo prior to viability. An abortion can occur spontaneously, in which case it is usually called a miscarriage, or it can be purposely induced. The term abortion most commonly refers to the induced abortion of a human pregnancy.

Abortion, when induced in the developed world in accordance with local law, is among the safest procedures in medicine. However, unsafe abortions result in approximately 70,000 maternal deaths and 5 million hospital admissions per year globally.

Statistics shows that there are approximately 42 million abortions occurs every year worldwide. And according to China Daily, a state-controlled newspaper, out of the 42 million abortions occurs every year; China has the 30% of it with 13 million abortions annually. Abortion in China is legal and is a government service available on request for women. In addition to virtually universal access to contraception, abortion is a way for China to contain its population in accordance with its one-child policy.

I. One-child Policy

A. Definition

The one-child policy is the population control policy of the People's Republic of China (PRC). It restricts urban couples to only have one child, while allowing additional children in several cases, including twins, rural couples, ethnic minorities, and couples who are both only children themselves. In 2007, according to a spokesperson of the Committee on the One-Child Policy, approximately 35.9% of China's population was subject to a one-child restriction. The Special Administrative Regions of Hong Kong and Macau are completely exempt from the policy. Also exempt from this law are foreigners living in China.

B. Problems Associated with Over Population

China has the highest population in the world, encompassing 1.2 billion or twenty one percent of the world's population. China faces serious social and economic problems associated with overpopulation in the years to come. Overly populated regions lead to degradation of land and resources, pollution, and detrimental living conditions. The Chinese government has tried to find a solution to the problem of increasing population with moderate success.

C. China’s Population Control Policy

The Chinese government has used several methods to control population growth. In 1979, China started the "one child per family policy". This policy stated that citizens must obtain a birth certificate before the birth of their children. The citizens would be offered special benefits if they agreed to have only one child. Citizens who did have more than one child would either be taxed an amount up to fifty percent of their income, or punished by loss of employment or other benefits. Furthermore, unplanned pregnancies or pregnancies without the proper authorization would need to be terminated.

D. Population Control Methods

Other methods that have been used by the Chinese government to restrict rising population totals include birth control programs and economic changes. In the early '80's, sterilization target goals were set and made mandatory for people who had two children. At its peak in 1983, tubal ligations, vasectomies, and abortions amounted to thirty-five percent of the total birth control methods. In addition, the economy changed from primarily one of agriculture to industry. The government used this to its advantage; spreading the view that economic growth would hinder population growth.

E. Human Rights Violation

The one-child policy is...
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