Below what speed are there different leased line standards in different parts of the world? In the text “Business data networks and telecommunications” the author points out that leased lines vary worldwide from 56 kbps to several gigabits per second, depending on the technology used. The lowest speeds of these leased lines are 56 or 64 kbps in the United States, and 64 kbps in Europe. These speeds are comparable to modem speeds and are rarely installed. The typical wiring for these types of lines is 2 Pair Data-Grade UTP. Additionally, it should be noted that leased line speeds vary greatly in countries other than the United States and Europe and (Panko & Panko, 2011). What is the exact speed of a T1 line?

The T1 line in the United States operates at 1.544 Mbps (Panko & Panko, 2011). However, it should be noted that the actual payload value of a T1 is 1.536 Mbps. According to Bell Labs – the inventor of T1 technology - the reason for the difference is T1 lines use UTP wiring with a digital not analog signal. The stream starts with bits arranged in 24 channels of 8 bits each - sampled at 8 KHz. The total then is 64 Kbps per channel. Thus there are 24 channels at 64 Kbps per channel, which when multiplied offers 1,536 Kbps – or the actual graded speed of a T1 line (Bell Systems, 2012). What are the speeds of comparable leased lines in Europe?

In Europe the line that is comparable to the United States T1 is the E1 - also known as the CEPT-1. The E1 integrated line operates at a rate of 2.048Mbps. Additionally, the typical transmission standard for both T1 and E1 lines is the 2 Pair Data-Grade UTP wire (Panko & Panko, 2011). The chart below details the speed variation between the T1 and E1 leased lines.

| | | |
| United States T1| | European E1|
Speed| 1.544 Mbps| | 2.048 Mbps|
Wire | 2 Pair Data-grade UTP| | 2 Pair Data-Grade UTP| | | | |
Why are fractional T1 and E1 speeds...

...Straight Line Equations and Inequalities
A: Linear Equations - Straight lines
Please remember that when you are drawing graphs you should always label your axes and that y is always shown on the vertical axis. A linear equation between two variables x and y can be represented by y = a + bx where “a” and “b” are any two constants. For example, suppose we wish to plot the straight line If x = -2, say, then y = 3 + 2(-2) = 3 - 4 = -1 If x= -2 -1 -1 1 0 3 1 5 2 7 As you can see, we have plotted the five points on the graph. They do indeed all lie on a straight line and we have joined them together to show the line. Of course, you could draw the line by just plotting any two points on it and then joining and extending those two points. y = 3 + 2x ..... and so on (see table below)
Then y =
y
x
The equation simply represents the relationship between two variables x and y. For example: suppose our basic salary is £4000 and we add commission to that at the rate of 5% of our total sales. Call y our total salary and call x our sales (both in £) then we could represent this relationship as y = 4000 + 0.05x (5% is five hundredths i.e. 0.05) Then, if we knew that total sales were 6000, we could work out total salary: y = 4000+0.05(6000) or £4300
For our next example, we will draw the equation y = 6 - x on a graph (using just two points): For y = 6 - x Put x = 1 then y = 6 - 1 = 5 Put x =...

...LINES AND PLANES IN SPACE
PLANE – is a surface such that if any two points on it are joined by a straight line, the line lies wholly on the surface.
POSTULATE 1. Through three points not on the same straight line, one and only one plane can be passed.
A plane is determined by any of the following conditions:
1. Three non-collinear points;
2. A line and a point not on the line;
3. Two intersecting lines; or
4. Two parallel lines.
POSTULATE 2. If two planes meet, they have at least two distinct points in common.
PARALLEL LINES- lines that lie on the same plane and cannot meet however far they are produced.
PARALLEL PLANES – planes which do not intersect however far they are produced.
FOOT OF A LINE - the point of intersection of a line and a plane or of a line and a second line.
NORMAL TO A PLANE – a line perpendicular to a plane.
The projection of a point on the plane is the foot of the perpendicular let fall from the point to the plane.
The projection of a line on the plane is the locus of the projection of all its points.
THEOREMS:
1. If two planes intersect, their intersection is a line.
2. Through one straight line an infinite number of planes may...

...a ball as close to the meter stick as possible and measure a) the height dropped and b) the resulting height bounces. Repeat this for three different heights dropped and records all data. Then you will make a graph of the data.
Make at least three more measurements for each of the previous three height dropped levels. Find the average height bounced for each level and record the data and the average values.
Make a new graph of the average height bounced for each level that the ball was dropped . Draw a straight line best fit that includes the origin by considering the general trend of the data points measurement data. Draw that straight line as close as possible to as many data points as you can so that you have about the number of data points on both sides of the straight line.
Compare how well both graph predicts the heights that the ball will bounce for height dropped that were not tried previously. Located an untried height dropped distance on the straight line then use the corresponding height bounced from the graph as a prediction.
Graphing
Feb. 1, 2011
TR
9:30-10:50
Shantia Stringfellow
Physical Science Survey...

...JIELIANG PHONE HOME CASE STUDY
PROBLEM STATEMENT
Jieliang (DL) is a line worker at Precision Electro-Tech’s Dongguan, China manufacturing plant. During a plant walk through, Marty Cole (OEM – Global Team) witnessed Jieliang being publicly disciplined in front of her fellow line workers for not following Total Quality Control (TQC) procedures and using her own method.
ANALYSIS
Precision Electro-Tech is a large contract manufacturer (CM) that produces products (i.e., cell phones) for another company or OEM (Original Equipment Manufacturer). “In the case of complex assembly tasks, if those tasks can be broken down into simple unit manufacturing steps that can be completely specified, they can be sent to low-cost countries like China where unskilled labor can be trained to follow those steps in detail. This business concept is known as “labor arbitrage” and is the foundation of the global economy and outsourcing (Shih, Bernstein, Bilimoria, 2009).”
The above business model of CMs is a tried and true paradigm and is consistent with the lean principles of manufacturing. While this model is widely used, particularly in outsourcing operations; the key is that each step must be clearly defined, delineated, and rigidly followed in order to maximize productivity.
The advantage of the CM approach is that it allows OEMs to specify the exact steps in the manufacturing process; ostensibly, to ensure exact specifications and a high level of quality...

...BOOK REVIEW
Novel : The Shadow Lines
AUTHOR : Amitav Ghosh
Awards : winner of the Sahitya Akademi Award (1989).
Bibliography : The Shadow Lines(novel), Wikipedia(Internet).
Main Characters : Mayadebi, Tridib, Ila, May, Narrator, Nick, grandmother.
POLITICAL SCENERIO :
The novel is set against the backdrop of historical events:
1.Swadeshi movement
2.Second World War
3.Partition of Country
4.Communal riots of 1963-64 in Dhaka and Calcutta
CHARACTERS ANALYSIS :
The characters in this novel – except that of Tridib – are realistically portrayed and are not larger than life. Each one is portrayed with all the weaknesses that make them endearing. Each one is believable . But Tridib does not seem to belong to this world. He comes across as a ‘seer’, someone endowed with extra-sensory and extra-visionary abilities.
1. Narrator : The protagonist is a middle class boy who grows up in a middle class family. He is sexually attaracted to Ila but he never tells her. He is very close to his grandmother and knows about her more than anyone. As a young boy he seldom gets to travel farther than his school. And yet his world spans far beyond, across continents. He paints up this world, rather vividly, borrowing colours from others. He uses Tridib’s eyes to view a certain family in London, their house, the streets, the panic of war. He uses his grandmother’s eyes to see her life in Dhaka as a young girl, her uncle and cousins, the other side of...

...Credit Line Portfolio
Problem:
Vancity is faced with an expected shortfall of $24 million if we do not reprice our line of credit portfolio. We must decide what actions to take to ensure our own financial viability and meet our members’ expectations while adhering to our Statement of Values and Commitments.
Recommendations:
We should reprice our line of credit offerings. This will be seen as an unfavourable decision by our members but is a decision that we must make with confidence.
Analysis:
The Dilemma
In the wake of the 2008 financial crisis we find ourselves at a crossroads. As you know, the spread between our deposit interest rate and the rate on our lines of credit has narrowed to levels never seen before. We are now expecting a potential shortfall of $24 million on existing outstanding loans, or as much as $45 million should our customers choose to draw down their credit lines.
We must take action to prevent any expected shortfalls all the while keeping in mind where we stand as a company and the obligations we owe to our members and our community.
Alternative Actions:
There are many alternatives available to you and ultimately it will be your decision. I have offered six alternatives for your consideration which are discussed below.
Do nothing
This alternative is likely the favourite among our members as it has little or no immediate impact on them. Our members would...

...1 November 2009
Paper #2 Assignment
What is life like on the global assembly line?
In the article “Life on the Global Assembly Line” Barbara Ehrenreich and Annette Fuentes did a very good job of portraying what was really going on in the lives of women working in an assembly line in Third World countries. I felt like the authors were not happy about what the corporations were doing. I think that the corporations are like a hungry dog that never could be satisfied with anything. I only disagree with one little thing in their article, the term “first world” or “third world” do not exist anymore, because the cold war ended three decades ago; however, I agree with Ehrenreich and Fuentes’ argument about women being exploited in the third world countries by evil corporations by wage difference, gender inequality, and ruthless working and living conditions. If I am given a chance to own or run a multinational corporations; I would do anything to make sure no one is taken advantage of, and everyone would be treated equally, and be a role model corporation that other corporations would also do the right thing.
First of all, in my imaginary corporation, I would pay all my employees equally. In fact, as the CEO of the corporation, I would set my salary as $1. There are numerous CEO’s such as Steve Jobs (Apple) around the world that has set their salaries at $1 annually (Julian). I think this is a brave move and a smart one. The big...

..."Reflections on Country Line Dancing"
"Don't tell my heart, my achy breaky heart; I just don't think you'd understand." Who knew that the 1993 smash hit, "Achy Breaky Heart," by Billy Ray Cyrus would be the turning point that would cause country line dancing to become a worldwide phenomenon. Despite differing opinions on the exact history, it is evident that country line dancing is an extension of past social dance forms and is representative of the social, economic, and political state of the United States. However, one thing is for sure. Country line dancing is not just a fad, but rather seems to be a mainstay in the culture of the United States, as seen by the thousands of clubs like the Boot Scootin' Saloon throughout the country.
First, while line dancing at the Boot Scootin' Saloon on Saturday, November 7, 1998, I had the opportunity to interview two interesting women, Jill Babinec and Lesley Rafferty. First, Jill Babinec, a resident of Cleveland, Ohio, became interested in line dancing a few years ago after she began listening to country music by such artists as Billy Ray Cyrus, Garth Brooks, and Shania Twain. Ms. Babinec likes to line dance not only because she loves to dance and finds it fun, but also because she believes it is a good form of cardiovascular exercise. Jill has taught line dancing several times at Broncos and on Thursday...