Learning Theories

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LEARNING THEORIES - COGNITIVE LEARNING THEORIES

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CHAPTER 5

Learning Theories
- Cognitive
Learning Theories

5

LE ARNI NG OUTCOMES
After studying this chapter, you should be able to:
1.

Explain what is cognitive revolution and the cognitive perspective on learning and how it differs from other theoretical perspective;

2.

Discuss the origins of the contemporary cognitive perspective including the Gestalt psychology and the role of perception;

3.

Describe the Information processing model to learning and distinguish the features of ‘Multistore model’;

4.

Explain what is schema theory;

5.

Link schema theory to cognitive structuralism and examine the role of insightful learning and meaningful learning; and

6.

Discuss application of cognitive theories in the classroom.

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LEARNING THEORIES - COGNITIVE LEARNING THEORIES

INTRODUCTION

Sometimes you wonder why the
teacher use colourful chalk with some
of the words written on the board.
Sometimes the teacher write in capital
letter with important words.

These are useful as guides for the students to differentiate the important and unimportant facts. In other words, accurate perception is important in good learning. It is part of the Gestalt principles. Clearly, these principles are useful as guide for teachers as they organize their materials and learning activities. So in this chapter, we will discuss the origin and features of cognitive theory and relate them to cognitive constructivism and meaningful learning. Figure 5.1 give you some ideas related to cognitive learning theory covered in this topic.

Figure 5.1: Cognitive learning theory covered in this topic.

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LEARNING THEORIES - COGNITIVE LEARNING THEORIES

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CHAPTER 5

COGNITIVE REVOLUTION

The “Cognitive revolution” is the name for an intellectual movement in the 1950s that began with what are known collectively as the cognitive sciences. It began in the modern context of greater interdisciplinary communication and research. The relevant areas of interchange were the combination of psychology, anthropology and linguistics with approaches developed within the then-nascent fields of artificial intelligence, computer science and neuroscience. Two of the prominent figures in cognitive psychology are Jean Piaget (1896 – 1980) and Lev Vygotsky (1896 – 1934). Figure 5.2 shows the relevant areas of interchange that know as cognitive revolution.

Figure 5.2: The combinations of cognitive revolution

The cognitive revolution in psychology was a response to behaviourism, which was the predominant school in experimental psychology at the time. This school was heavily influenced by Ivan Pavlov, B.F. Skinner, and other physiologists. They proposed that psychology could only become an objective science if it is based on observable behaviour in test subjects. Since mental events are not publicly observable, behaviourist psychologists avoided description of mental processes or the mind in their literature. Psychoanalytic theories on the other hand stress the importance of the unconscious while cognitive theories emphasize on conscious thoughts. 3 important cognitive theories are Piaget’s cognitive developmental theory, Vygotsky’s sociocultural cognitive theory and information processing theories, which we have discussed in previous chapter. Cognitive Psychology focuses on the study of how people think, understand, and know. They emphasizes on learning how people comprehend and represent the outside world within themselves and how our ways of thinking about the world influence our behaviour.

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LEARNING THEORIES - COGNITIVE LEARNING THEORIES

From a cognitive learning perspective, learning involves the transformation of information in the environment into knowledge that is stored in the mind. Learning occurs when new knowledge is acquired or existing knowledge is modified by...
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