Learning Styles

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Learner Variables

Learning Styles and Strategies

Learning Styles

An individual’s general approach to learning; a general predisposititon,

not fixed, but a dominant way of negotiating reality

predisposition-- cognitive, affective, physical

personality styles: self-esteem, inhibition, emphaty, risk taking, anxiety, ambiguity tolerance, impulsivity, etc.

cognitive styles (VAKOG) : the way we learn things, the way we attack problems:

Learning modalities: VAKOG

According to NLP, we use primary representational systems (described in the acronym “VAKOG”) to experience the world.

Learning modalities: VAKOG

Visual( look and see)

Auditory( hear and listen)

Kinaesthetic( feel externally, internally, or through movement)

Olfactory( smell things)

Gustatory( taste things)

Learning Style Profiles: Global & Analytic

GLL prefer LL through global exposure

ALL like to analyse elements in detail.

This might influence the L’s response to methods of presenting language.

Global Learner& Analytic Learner

Dealing with a text GLL might predict and infer to get an overall understanding(FD- a tendency to see the whole but not easily perceive the embedded parts),

While an ALL might search for small details and try to follow accurately the precise relationships between different parts of the text( FI– a style that enables you to distinguish parts from a whole).

Styles & Strategies

Some learners can tolerate ambiguity better than others and wait for further, disambiguating information.

This might well advantage beginners dealing with the presentation of simplified grammatical rules, such as:

Use some in (+) statements

Use any in (?) and (-) statements

These learners may quickly see exceptations to the rule in language they are exposed to, as the rules are far more complex.

cognitive style” = “learning style

These charachteristics are now seen as “cognitive style” or “learning style”, which can be generally defined as a

--charachteristic and preferred way of approaching learning and processing information.

cognitive style” = “learning style

The question is whether and in what ways this individual style affects LL: the picture so far remains unclear.

cognitive style” = “learning style

There is evidence to suggest that

culture, as learned by the child from family,

community, and

school,

has a strong influence on learning style.

cognitive style” = “learning style

Chinese children, in learning an ideagraphic writing sytem, learn to see patterns and try to learn by rote(Hofstede, 1986).

Reid(1987) found that Korean ss, in terms of sensory preference, are more visual than US or Japanese ss. (They like to read and receive visual input).

cognitive style” = “learning style

Brown (1987) suggests that Anglo-Americans have an analytic style.

Egyptian ss (Oxford& Burry-Stock 1995) take a global approach.

These and other studies are reviewed in a survey article (Oxford & Anderson 1995) which points out the need for teachers’ awareness of the issue.

cognitive style” = “learning style

With regard to the multi-cultural classroom, insights into culture and learning style highlight the teachers’ need to create a variety of learning activities to cater for the range of styles.

cognitive style” = “learning style

Researching LL style has been closely related to investigating the strategies used by successfull language learners.

These are techniques used by learners

to deal with input,

assimilate new language,

store,

retrieve, and

practise using it.

investigating the strategies

Oxford (1990) provides a comprehensive list which can be used by teachers to prepare ss for learning.

Two items from her list...
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