1. Key Issues in the Learning Study case
The learning study case has been conducted according to the theoretical framework built on three types of variation: variation in students’ understanding about the topic (V1); variation in teachers’ understand of what the most worthwhile object of learning is and ways of handling it (V2); using “Pattern of Variation” as a guiding principle of pedagogical design (V3).
With the help of V2, we decided to give a lesson about picture description, which is part of the Territory-wide System Assessment (TSA). They should be able to write three elements, namely setting, activity and setting in the picture. Then, they had to organize the description of a picture in a logical way. For V1, a pre-test had been done to analyze students’ previous knowledge and their difficulties on the topic.
In the first teaching cycle, some students were able to name the objectives in the picture but they could not give a complete sentence. Only a few more capable students were willing to give responses to the teacher. Almost none of them could answer higher-order thinking questions like providing justification for the better passage. Based on these observations, a few modifications for the second teaching cycle had been made. Teachers wrote down a few examples in complete sentences for students to act as references so that they are more familiar with the complete sentence structure. To take care of learners’ diversity, teacher asked students probing questions at different stages of learning in order to scaffold students’ answers. Teachers also tried to elicit responses from every student instead of those capable ones. For easier identification of differences between the two passages, students were asked to read aloud the two passages altogether before comparing them. Considering the whole lesson, due to the fact that in the second cycle there was more time available, the...