Learning disabilities affect the ability to understand or use spoken or written language, do mathematical calculations, and coordinate movements or direct attention. These disorders are a processing deficit. Without being able to see and hear properly the information is not received and processed correctly by the brain.
DyslexiaDyslexia is a neurological learning disability. It is characterized by difficulties with word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities. Dyslexia is an inherited condition. Researchers have determined that a gene on the short arm of chromosome #6 is responsible for dyslexia. That gene is dominant, making dyslexia highly heritable
Provide a daily outline of schedules, goals, and lecture notes. Reduce clutter on visual aids.
Print on colored paper to reduce glare.
Boldface key words.
Show the whole picture first.
Break information into small, sequential steps.
Construct the classroom environment for success.
Use Peer helpers.
Video tape lessons and demonstrations.
Use audio textbooks.
Start each lesson with a review of prior learning.
Use hands on activity
Utilize demonstrations, observations, and experimentations. Expand lessons beyond visual and auditory learning.
Incorporate kinetic or sensory learning experiences.
Provide hands-on learning activities.
Write assignments in the same place daily or provide a written handout. Use altering evaluation and testing procedures
Offer multiple-choice tests rather than short answer and essay tests. Read directions orally.
DyscalculiaDyscalculia is a specific neurological disorder affecting a person's ability to understand and/or manipulate numbers.The following factors can play a role: 1) Intelligence: This should be tested to exclude a low IQ, which is a different cause. 2) Learning disabilities: The way one thinks.
- One is not able to grasp the basic concepts of math.
(add, subtract, multiply, divide)
- Do they have dyslexia so reading itself is a problem?
- Do they recognize math symbols?
3) School education.
- Is the math method, system good enough?
- Instruction problem: the teacher has to explain more or in a different way. 4) Short memory.
When the memory is decreased, it is hard to remember calculations. 5)Congenital- or hereditary diseases
6)Combination of all these factors1. Encourage students to "visualize" math problems by drawing them or having them draw a picture to help understand the problem 2. Have the student read problems out loud and listen very carefully. 3. Provide examples and try to relate problems to real-life situations. 4. Provide younger students with graph paper and encourage them to use it in order to keep the numbers in line. 5. Provide uncluttered worksheets so that the student is not overwhelmed by too much visual information. 6. Spend extra time memorizing mathematics facts. Repetition is very important. Use rhythm or music to help memorize. 7. Many students need one-on-one attention to fully grasp certain concepts. 8. Allow the student to take the exam on a one-to-one basis in the teacher's presence. 9. Provide immediate feedback and a chance to do the problem over once. Often their mistakes are the result of "seeing" the problem wrong. 10. Allow extra time to complete problems and check to see that student is not panicking 11. Most importantly, be PATIENT! Never forget that the student WANTS to learn and retain. Realize that mathematics can be a traumatic experience and is highly emotional because of past failures. 11. Assign extra problems for practice
12. When presenting new material, make sure writes each step down and talk it through until they understand it well enough to teach it back to you. 13. Go over the upcoming lesson with so that the lecture is more of a...