Instructor: MARCIA BAKER
July 6 , 2015
According to Investopedia leadership is “the ability of a company’s management to make sound decisions and inspire others to perform well.” Leaders are able to handle strategies to achieve challenging goals, taking quick action even in difficult situations to outperform their competition. These leaders are characterized by self-confidence, communication skills, leadership group, and strong to accept the organization’s change (www.investopedia.com) There have been countless studies on leadership based on the characteristics in each leader to identify interaction with situation, behavior, charisma, power etc. There are several leadership theories as a leader relates to persons within organizations. For this essay I decide to focus on four theories of leadership: Trait, Contingency, Situational and Behavioral.
There are a growing variety of theories of leadership that explain the dynamic and complex process that leaders have to face. This relationship of influence between leaders and followers show real changes that are reflected in achieving a shared purpose. The leadership theories are going to mention first is the Trait Theory, this trait theory shows us that people are born with certain qualities that help to keep some people influence and thus act as leaders. (Cherry, 2012) Contingency theories of leadership focus on variables related to the environment to determine which strategy use in the situation that arises. The theory success depends on the variables, and the qualities of the followers and every situation. Situational theories focus on situational variables and strategies of the leaders to handle and propose that leaders choose the best action based on the problem to solve. Behavioral theories are based on the leaders believe are born not made, focusing on the theory action of leaders, not on mental qualities. According to this theory, people can learn by teaching to be a leader. (Cherry, 2012)
This leadership model refers to the characteristics of leaders and used to predict the effectiveness of leadership. The traits are compared with those of potential leaders to predict the likelihood of success or failure. (Draft, 2011) Among the traits that are evaluated are physiology, intellectual, demographics, social characteristics, personality, and leader effectiveness. (“Trait Theory of Leadership”. 2012) The traits are identified are motivation, self-confidence, charisma, emotional maturity, integrity and creativity. Strengths of trait theory, it has detailed knowledge, it’s nice to others, and maintains group understanding. Also, there are limitations as objective judgment to determine who is a leader or not and some other. This is one of the most criticized theories, scholars point out that the leadership trait theory just as the leader focuses on effectiveness is perceived by followers. (Lord et al., 1986) instead of the actual effectiveness that has a leader (Judge et al., 2009).
The Contingency Theory of leadership, the success of the leader is an achievement of several variables of subordination, or group task. (Draft, 2011) Fiedler theory is the most widely investigated. Field evaluate this model without taking into account claiming that teamwork depends on the leader’s psychological orientation and is based on there variables tat are held and the leader, group environment and procedure to accomplish the task features. (“Contingency Theory of Leadership”, 2012) Fiedler showed his approach to leadership when he realized that leaders could change their style if they adapted to the situation in question. The Fiedler leadership style is one where leaders and employees relate to each other. (Smith, 2012) Although this theory does not cover all the factors that influence the...
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