Researchers studied the effectiveness of “initiating structure” and “consideration” leadership behaviors.
Subordinates' ratings of their leaders' effectiveness did not depend on the particular style of the leader but on the situation in which the style was used.
University of Michigan Studies
Researchers distinguished between production-centered and employee-centered managers.
→ Production-centered managers – set rigid work standards, organized asks down to the last detail, prescribed work methods o be followed and closely supervised their subordinates' work
→ Employee-centered managers – encouraged subordinate participation in goal setting and in other work decisions and helped ensure high performance by inspiring trust and respect most effective leadership
Most effective leaders were those who had supportive relationships with their subordinates, tended to use group rather than individual decision making, and encouraged their subordinates to set and achieve high performance goals.
Managerial Grid (Blake and Mouton Studies)
developed by Robert Blake and Jane Mouton
identifies 5 different types of management behaviors based on the various ways that task-oriented and employee-oriented styles can interact with each other
Style 1,1 (impoverished management) – low concern for people, low concern for tasks or production laissez-faire management – leader abdicates his or her leadership role
Style 1,9 (country club management) – high concern for employees, low concern for tasks
Style 9,1 (task or authoritarian management) – high concern for production and efficiency, low concern for employees
Style 5,5 (middle-of-the-road management) – an intermediate amount of concern for both production and employee satisfaction
Style 9,9 ( team or democratic management) – high concern for both production and employee morale and satisfaction ; most effective leadership behavior...