Journal o] Applied Psychology 1976, Vol. 61, No. 2, 136-139
A Facet Analysis of Leadership Styles
Zur Shapira Graduate School of Management, University of Rochester Leadership styles were defined as a function of three facets: the leader's behavior, the locus of power, and the locus of information within a managementsubordinate system. Five leadership styles were defined by these facets: direction, negotiation, consultation, participation, and delegation. The common order that exists within each facet determined a partially ordered set of leader styles. The intercorrelation matrix of loader styles, based on survey data, was subjected to the Guttman-Lingoes smallest space analysis, which transforms correlation coefficients to distances in an Euclidean space. The hypothesized partial order relations among the different leader styles were accurately reflected in the analysis. This lends support to the potential of facet analysis in studying leadership styles.
This paper examines facet analysis (cf. Guttman, 1959, 1966) as a method for developing and testing hypotheses about structural relations of leadership styles. Heller (1971) suggested that leaders' decision styles can be described along an influence-power continuum. Bass and Valenzi (1974) followed this approach and defined five leadership styles: direction, negotiation, consultation, participation, and delegation. These styles can be characterized according to the relative degree of authoritativeness that is inherent in the specific leader style. Bass and Valenzi (1974) postulated that leadership style is a part of a broader management-subordinate system, and that two major variables in this system are the power and the information distribution between the leader and his subordinates. Hence, the probability that a certain leader style will occur partly depends on the power and information differences between the leader and his subordinates. To test the Bass and Valenzi (1974) postulates on leader styles, the method of facet analysis (cf. Guttman, 1959, 1966) was employed. According to this approach, a cartesian space is constructed by the facets that characterize the phenomenon under investigaThe author wishes to thank B. M. Bass and K. R. Gabriel for their comments on an earlier draft of this paper. Requests for reprints should be sent to Zur Shapira, The Jerusalem School of Business, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel.
tion. The elements of the facets define profiles in the cartesian space, which correspond to the variables employed in the empirical study. The relationships among the variables are predicted according to the facet design and are tested subsequently using an appropriate multivariate procedure. To express the Bass and Valenzi (1974) formulations in a facet design, the following facets are proposed: A: Leader behavior a i : Authoritative a->: Democratic B : Locus of power b i : Boss has the power bj: Subordinate has the power
C : Locus of information ci: Boss has the information c->: Subordinate has the information
The leader styles constitute the different profiles that are constructed by these facets. For example, a^biCi is a style that is described by an authoritative boss who has both the power and the information to make decisions. Such a style was defined by Bass and Valenzi (1974) and Heller (1971) as a directive style. Based on the same facets the following leadership styles can be defined: Profile aibiCi aibjci a2bics a 2 b 2 Ci ajbjcj Leader style Directive Negotiative Consultative Participative Delegative
A common order exists within the different facets. Namely, in each facet the order shows a progression from a strong to a weak form 136
of authoritative behavior of the leader toward his subordinates. This can be represented by ai > &z, bi > b2, and Ci > c2. However, no assumptions are made as to a possible rank order among the facets. The entire universe of profiles (i.e., leader...
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