MANAGEMENT CONCEPT (B)
Leadership is essentially the core and spirit of an organization (Mills, 2005). As the people in control of the affairs of an organisation, leaders manage the organisation's affairs, relate with employees on a daily basis, face to face. Hence leaders are given the task to communicate organisational goals, visions and ideas to employees, maintain and implement organisational rules and systems and even have the final say on promotion, retention and dismissal ((Murray, 2013). Hence, Leaders do not have same approach to issues; neither do they get things done in the same manner. Leadership style varies depending on the kind of individuals the leaders interact with as well as the nature of the organisation he leads. Leadership styles used by leaders have changed drastically as new information is discovered, accepted and used (Zhou et at 2008). The role of leadership now requires leaders to engage themselves more, strive to lead their teams by example and earn the loyalty of their subordinates thereby enhancing employee performance and creating a cordial relationship between employees and organizations (Zhou et at 2008). An example of such the changing process is Apple Inc, since the death of former CEO Steve Job and the appointment of new CEO Tim Cook the company has gone through some kind of makeover, getting rid of some displeasing characteristics connected with Jobs and replacing with some of its new leaders features and qualities (Kelly 2012). Leadership: According to Nader (N/A), leadership is the influence that particular individuals (leaders) exert upon the goal achievement of others (subordinates) in an organizational context. Similar, Taleghani et al 2010) defines leadership as the process of having dominance on group activities in order to realize the objectives of an organisation. Therefore, leadership is said to be a process by which one person influences the thoughts, attitudes, and behaviours of others (Mills, 2005). Gitsham (2012) identified two types of leaders as; emergent Leaders and Assigned leaders. Emergent leaders are those who earn leadership positions through their abilities, skills and abilities to influence others, or personal acceptability by the group. While assigned leaders are those who are given power to exercise influence through appointment. Such leaders draw power and influence from sources outside the group, and in most cases, have been given some power to assign tasks, and hand out rewards and punishments based on performance (Vroom and Jago, 1988). Generally, these two types of leaders accomplishes two different functions that includes being able to provide social and emotional support to the group by listening, acknowledging, team building, and supporting other members in the group (Muller, 2002), the second factor is to provide direction and assistance to the group in accomplishing their tasks. Successful leaders have the ability to identify and apply the appropriate strategy at the right time (Muller, 2002). Leadership style refers to the patterns of behaviours an individual leader uses across a full range of managerial and leadership situations (Dubrin, 2008). Goleman (2000) highlights six leadership styles that include commanding, Visionary, Affiliate, Democratic, Pacesetting and Coaching. Similarly, According to Vroom and Jago (1988), as quoted by Nader (N/A) highlights three different leadership styles. These are autocratic, consultative, or group decision-making style. In this context, six leadership styles will be discussed
Visionary: This is said to be the most appropriate leadership style for an organization that needs a new track (Zhou et al 2008). Visionary leaders articulate where a group is going, but not how it will get there. He encourages individuals to innovate, experiment, take calculated risks (Mills, 2005) Coaching: This is a one-on-one style that...