Leadership development is considered as one of the key success of management of organizations and companies. Leadership development is involved in the process of improving managerial skills of leadership, realizing both the nature of each organization and the nature of management team in order to implement the right leadership styles. Academic researchers have looked into different management leadership styles and have come up with wildly known three main leadership styles.
According to Kurt Lewin (1939), leadership can be categorized to three main leadership styles which are autocratic, democratic and laissez-faire. Each type of leadership can be applied depending upon each organization and in some circumstances. Every leadership styles have their own characteristics which have both strangeness and weakness. Therefore the differences of structures and cultures in organization are needed to be considered as well.
The first type of leadership is called autocratic style; this style is used when leaders tell their employees what they want and how they want it accomplished, without getting the advice of their followers. Leader is centralizing the power and limit employee participation.
Prescott (1981) mentioned that autocratic is “The leader was seen as the expert who was capable of making effective decisions on most work matters since he dealt with a pattern of recurring work problems”.
Autocratic provides management with both advantages and disadvantages. First of all advantages are mentioned as autocratic can help to reduce stress due to increase control for management. Colvin et al, (1997) Manager has ultimate power to control everything whatever they done. Moreover autocratic manager can help to stimulate poor employee work perform and manager exerts over subordinates improve their working speed. Short term project with complex element and highly technical skills is the most preferable work situation of autocratic.
Advantages of autocratic prove to fasten and make the work more efficiency. Disadvantages of autocratic are needed to be mentioned. While autocratic is enable the faster process of work project in the short term, subordinates or lower work forces miss the opportunity to learn or gain any experience of their own leadership development (Park, 1996) The in- experience work forces will affect the organization in the long term as they are de-skilling by management which will lead to poor decisions and productivity within the organization.
However the autocratic can be perceived as having poor leadership skills, manager with poor leadership skills could decrease the effective and leadership ability within the organization. (Adeyemi-Bello, 2001)
The second type of leadership is called democratic which mainly involves the sharing of responsibility, workforce consultation and exercise of negotiation. Democratic consists of many characteristics, such as, manager is tend to listen from subordinates and let them sharing decision. (Johansson, 2004) Manager encourages lower workforce to be a part of leader which is involved in leadership development. Manager passes on responsibilities to subordinates then let them take control of their tasks.
As the same as autocratic, democratic has many advantages toward organization. First of all, positive work circumstance, where employees are given responsibilities and are allowed challenging themselves then they feel more enthusiastic. Secondly, there are more ideas and more creativity to solve problem in organization. Thirdly, reducing friction, by allowing lower workforce use their idea they will gain credit which is reducing tension of employees.
On the other hand, seeking consultation over every decision it can lead to be slow that can cause miss some opportunities. In some case, managers just pretend to be a democratic leadership. Managers only want to be appreciated by opening to employee’s...