Subject Name: Unit 14 .Working with and Leading people
Assignment Title: Assignment based on Leadership skills and styles
Question & Answers
Q.1 - Mention all the leadership theories and styles in brief and present a comparative study of all these leadership theories and styles. Answer: - In general terms, it is defined as the ability to influence people. Some of the bases of influence are legitimate, coercive, reward, and expert. Two main theories of leadership: theory X and theory Y are the elements of leadership. It has been observed that the substitute of leadership is group factors. In addition, various types of leadership have also been highlighted Over time, a number of theories of leadership have been proposed. Here are some of the main ideas.
People are born with inherited traits.
Some traits are particularly suited to leadership.
People who make good leaders have the right (or sufficient) combination of traits. Description
Early research on leadership was based on the psychological focus of the day, which was of people having inherited characteristics or traits. Attention was thus put on discovering these traits, often by studying successful leaders, but with the underlying assumption that if other people could also be found with these traits, then they, too, could also become great leaders. Stogdill (1974) identified the following traits and skills as critical to leaders. TraitsSkills
•Adaptable to situations
•Alert to social environment
•Ambitious and achievement-orientated
•Dominant (desire to influence others)
•Energetic (high activity level)
•Tolerant of stress
•Willing to assume responsibility •Clever (intelligent) •Conceptually skilled
•Diplomatic and tactful
•Fluent in speaking
•Knowledgeable about group task
•Organised (administrative ability)
McCall and Lombardo (1983) researched both success and failure identified four primary traits by which leaders could succeed or 'derail': •Emotional stability and composure: Calm, confident and predictable, particularly when under stress. •Admitting error: Owning up to mistakes, rather than putting energy into covering up. •Good interpersonal skills: Able to communicate and persuade others without resort to negative or coercive tactics. •Intellectual breadth: Able to understand a wide range of areas, rather than having a narrow (and narrow-minded) area of expertise.
Leaders can be made, rather than are born.
Successful leadership is based in definable, learnable behaviour. Description
Behavioural theories of leadership do not seek inborn traits or capabilities. Rather, they look at what leaders actually do. If success can be defined in terms of describable actions, then it should be relatively easy for other people to act in the same way. This is easier to teach and learn then to adopt the more ephemeral 'traits' or 'capabilities'. Role Theory
People define roles for themselves and others based on social learning and reading. People form expectations about the roles that they and others will play. People subtly encourage others to act within the role expectations they have for them. People will act within the roles they adopt.
We all have internal schemas about the role of leaders, based on what we read, discuss and so on. We subtly send these expectations to our leaders, acting as role senders, for example through the balance of decisions we take upon ourselves and the decisions we leave to the leader. Leaders are influenced by these signals, particularly if they are sensitive to the people around them, and will generally conform to these, playing the leadership role that is put upon them by others. Within organizations, there is much...