What is leadership? Leadership – The activity of leading a group of people in an organization or the ability to do this. In its, essence leadership in an organization role involve.
* Establishing a clear vision.
* Sharing that vision with others so that they will follow willingly. * Proving the information, knowledge and method to realize that vision. * Coordinating and balancing the conflicting interest of all members.
A leader comes to the forefront in case of crisis, and is able to think and act in creative ways in difficult situations. Unlike management, leadership flows from the core of personality and cannot be taught, although it may be learn through coaching or mentoring.
I will present some various examples of the definitions of leaderships by famous scholars below.
"Leaders are individuals who establish direction for a working group of individuals who gain commitment form these group of members to this direction and who then motivate these members to achieve the direction's outcomes.” - Conger, J.A. ‘Learning to Lead’ San Francisco: Jossey-Bass (1992, p18)
"Leadership (according to John Sculley) revolves around vision, ideas, direction, and has more to do with inspiring people as to direction and goals than with day-to-day implementation. A leader must be able to leverage more than his own capabilities. He must be capable of inspiring other people to do things without actually sitting on top of them with a checklist.” - Bennis, W. ‘On Becoming a Leader’ Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing, (1989, p.139)
"Leadership is a development of a clear and complete system of expectations in order to identify evoke and use the strengths of all resources in the organization the most important of which is people.”- Batten, J.D. ‘Tough-minded Leadership’ New York: AMACOM (1989 p. 35)
(Even in ancient times the concept of leadership already exists.) The superior leader gets things done with very little motion. He imparts instruction not through many words but through a few deeds. He keeps informed about everything but interferes hardly at all. He is a catalyst, and though things would not get done well if he weren't’t there, when they succeed he takes no credit. And because he takes no credit, credit never leaves him. - Lao Tse, 604-531 B. C., Chinese philosopher and founder of Taoism, Tao Te Ching
Through this few examples I concluded that in my opinion, leadership is about how to coordinate people to work towards the desire vision. Trait Theory
Researches in the 20th century focused on identifying the qualities of good leaders and the styles of leadership manager should use. In Bass' (1989 & 1990) theory of leadership stated that some personality traits may lead people naturally into leadership roles. This is the Trait Theory.
* Some people were born with certain traits that made them effective leaders, whereas others were born without leadership traits * Traits generated by early research include:
* Physical characteristics – This refer to the looks, appearance, grooming of the manager. * Social characteristics – These traits are related to the ability to be sociable, communication skills and ability to get along with others. * Personality – These are associated with the individual’s character. Effective leaders usually exhibit an out-going, aggressive personality. * Intelligence characteristics – These characteristics refer to the ability of the individual to use his mental abilities to assess issues, make decisions and solve problems. * Work related characteristics – Such characteristics refer to the individual’s attitude towards work, such as whether he is ambitious, achievement-oriented and sets high goals to achieve.
* Further research found that not all leaders posses the same traits. No...