Henri Fayol first person to come up with a list of functions or elements of management
Planning setting objectives and also strategies, policies, programmes and procedures for achieving them.
Organising managers set tasks which need to be preformed if the business wants to achieve its objectives.
Commanding this involves giving instructions to subordinates to carry out tasks. The manager has the authority to make decisions.
Co-ordinating this is the bringing together of the activities of people within the business.
Controlling managers measure and correct the activities of individuals and groups, to make sure that their performance fits in with plans.
The management process
Peter Drucker grouped the operations of management into five categories
Setting objectives for the organisation
Job measurement assessing whether the business has met its objectives
Organising the work
Developing people the management should bring out the best in people
Four styles of management
Autocratic orders come form the top, and no leeway is allowed
Democratic less centralised, give space for initiative
Laissez faire arises from over worked or lazy management, staff is left to their own devices
Paternalistic decision making is still centralised but a noticeable attention and care for staff
McGregor's Theory X & Y
Douglas McGregor undertook a survey of managers in the USA and identified two styles of management, which he called Theory X and Theory Y.
Theory X managers tend to distrust their subordinates; they believe employees do not enjoy their work and that need to be controlled. Theory X is about the views managers have on their workforce.
Theory Y managers believe that employees do enjoy their work and they want to contribute ideas and effort. Theory Y manager is more likely to involve employees in decisions
Why do leader adopt different styles?... [continues]
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