Leadership Enhancing the Lessons of Experience

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I) Leadership Attributes

1. Personality Traits and Leadership

What is Personality?
Two different meanings:
First meaning refers to the impression a person makes on others his social reputation. It describes him or her as pushy, honest, outgoing, impulsive, decisive, friendly or independent. From the standpoint of leadership, this view of personality addresses two issues: “What kind of leader or person is this?” and “Is this somebody I would like to work for or be associated with?” •Second meaning of personality emphasizes with the unseen structures and processes inside a person why we behave the way we do. Why each person’s behavior tends to be relatively similar across different situations, yet also different from another person’s behavior; to understand that we need to focus on traits.

Traits Definition: a distinguishing characteristic or quality, especially of one's personal nature. Personality traits are useful concepts for explaining why people act fairly consistently from one situation to the next. Trait can help us predict more accurately how they will tend to act in a variety of situations. External factors, called weak moments affect a leader’s behavior in any given situation. Traits play a particularly important role in determining how people behave in unfamiliar, ambiguous, or what we might call weak situations.

The Five Factor or OCEAN Model of Personality
Despite this large number of adjectives, research has shown that most of the trait like terms people use to describe others’ behavioral patterns can be reliably categorized. The Five Factor or OCEAN model of personality is a categorization scheme. Most, if not all, of the personality traits that you would use to describe someone else could be reliably categorized into one of the five OCEAN personality dimensions. The five factors are 1) openness to experience which is concerned with curiosity, innovative thinking, assimilating new information, and being open to new experiences. Leaders higher in openness to experience tend to be imaginative, broad-minded, and curious and are more strategic, big-picture thinkers lower tend to be more practical, tactical, have narrower interests. They like doing things using tried-and-true ways rather than experimenting with new ways, which HAS NOTHING TO DO WITH INTELLIGENCE it´s just important depending what kind of leader we need. Conscientiousness concerns those behaviors related to people’s approach to work; Leaders higher in conscientiousness to be planable, organized, and earnest. Leaders who are lower in conscientiousness tend to be more spontaneous, creative, rule bending and impulsive.

Extraversion involves behaviors that are more to be exhibited in-group settings and trying to influence or control others. Leaders higher in extraversion trying to influence or control others, come across to others as outgoing, competitive, decisive, and outspoken. Leaders who are lower in extraversion prefer to work by themselves have little interest in influencing or competing with others. (Tony Parker as Iron man) (Simpson Mr. Smithers)

Agreeableness, which concerns about how one gets along with others. Leaders high in agreeableness come across to others as charming, diplomatic, warm, empathetic, approachable, and optimistic. Leaders lower tend to be insensitive, socially clueless, grumpy, cold, and pessimistic. Leaders who are too high in agreeableness will have problems or will feel uncomfortable with making unpopular decisions.

Neuroticism is concerned with how people react to stress, change, failure or personal criticism. Leaders higher in neuroticism seem to be passionate, intense, thin-skinned, moody lose their tempers when stressed or criticized. Leaders who are lower in neuroticism tend to be thick-skinned calm, and optimistic, tend not to take mistakes or failures personally hide their emotions. Because followers often mimic a leader’s behaviors under periods of high stress, leaders...
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