Leadership, Emotional Intelligence and Employee Engagement: Creating a Psychologically Healthy Workplace Kenneth Nowack, Ph.D. Envisia Learning email@example.com www.envisialearning.com What is Emotional Intelligence? The most widely accepted model of emotional intelligence (EI) has been influenced by several scientists and researchers. Sternberg’s (2003) theory of multiple intelligences suggests that interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligence are unique and different from the mathematical and logical type recognized today as "IQ" or general intelligence. Peter Salovey and John Mayer first proposed their own theory of EI in 1990 and Reuven Bar-On (1988) has placed EI in the context of personality, health and well-being. Daniel Goleman (1998) reformulated EI in terms of a theory of organizational and job performance. All these models, however, share a common core of basic concepts including Self-Awareness, Self-Management, Social Awareness, and Relationship Management. The Consortium for Research on Emotional Intelligence in Organizations (www.eiconsortium.org) is a useful website that serves as a resource portal on the topic of emotional intelligence including information on measures, current findings and EI resources. Research on EI and Performance A growing research literature suggests that EI may play a far more important role in career success and job performance than general intelligence (cognitive ability). A recent meta-analysis of 69 independent studies explored the predictive validity of emotional intelligence with diverse job performance outcomes (Van Rooy & Viswesvaran, 2004). Results suggested diverse measures of EI correlated .23 with job performance (k=19, N=4158) and .22 with general mental ability. These correlations suggest that EI can be considered a moderate predictor of job performance and success, relative to other types of personnel selection techniques including interviews, personality inventories and assessment centers. Other recent EI research studies suggest that: •
Highly conscientious employees who lack social and emotional intelligence perform more poorly than those high in conscientiousness and emotional intelligence. On average, strengths in purely cognitive capacities are approximately 27 percent more frequent in high performers than in the average performers,
whereas strengths in social and emotional competencies are 53 percent more frequent. •
The highest performing managers and leaders have significantly more "emotional competence" than other managers. Poor social and emotional intelligence are strong predictors of executive and management "derailment" and failure in one's career.
Leadership and relationships play a key role in organizational success. Recent research on the association between employee satisfaction and job performance suggests that the single most important contributor to the feelings of employee engagement, empowerment and satisfaction is based on the relationship they have with the leaders of the organization (Sheridan & Vrendenburgh, 1978; Ribelin, 2003; Eisenberger, Stinglhamber, Vandenberghe, Sucharski, Ivan & Rhoades, 2002; Rhoades, L., Eisenberger, R., & Armeli, S. (2001). A recent meta-analysis of over 7,939 business units in 38 companies explored the relationship at the business-unit level between employee satisfaction-engagement and the business-unit outcomes of customer satisfaction, productivity, profit, employee turnover, and accidents (Harter & Schmidt, 2002). Generalizable relationships, large enough to have substantial practical value, were found between unit-level employee satisfaction-engagement and these business-unit outcomes suggesting that management practices that affect satisfaction can have bottom line results on productivity and profit. One of the most salient career paradigm shifts has been the change from job security to employability security. Today, the engagement and retention of high potential talent is a...