Leadership development and leadership effectiveness
Department of Public Administration, Kazakhstan Institute of Management, Economics and Strategic Research, Almaty, Kazakhstan Abstract
Purpose – It is important that organizations embark on leadership development programs that will enhance leadership effectiveness. The purpose of this article is to identify some leadership development initiatives. Design/methodology/approach – The paper uses a review of the literature to offer some leadership development practices. Findings – Leadership development should be comprehensive and systematically integrated into the organizational culture in order to produce leaders who can deal adequately with organizational challenges. Practical implications – Organizations and leadership developers should use a systemic approach in order to address the current leadership crisis. This paper emphasizes a global perspective and an organizational commitment to leadership development. It is suggested that organizations should have a long-term focus towards realizing the beneﬁts from investments in leadership development programs. The article offers a number of approaches to the selection and development of leaders at all levels of an organization. Originality/value – All organizations face the problem of developing good leaders. This paper helps to identify some approaches to leadership development that will enhance leadership effectiveness and organizational performance. Keywords Leadership, Leadership development, Organizational performance Paper type Literature review
Leadership development and effectiveness 989
Organizations of all sizes are engaged in a competitive environment and hence need the right kind of leadership to survive. Organizations with effective leaders tend to innovate, respond to changes in markets and environments, creatively address challenges, and sustain high performance (Vardiman et al., 2006). While there are several deﬁnitions of leadership, in essence leadership is an act of motivating people to act by non-coercive means (Popper and Lipshitz, 1993). Alas et al. (2007) view leadership in terms of individual traits, leader behavior, interaction patterns, role relationships, follower perceptions, inﬂuence over followers, inﬂuence on task goals, and inﬂuence on organizational culture. Vardiman et al. (2006) and Yukl (2006) describe leadership as a process of inﬂuence toward the accomplishment of objectives. This view of leadership generally focuses on the dyadic relationships between a leader and follower, but not on what conditions need to be in place for effective leaders to emerge or to be developed (Vardiman et al., 2006). It is important that all employees be equipped with leadership skills (McCauley and Douglas, 2004) because leadership roles and processes are critical in setting direction, creating alignment, and nurturing commitment in groups of people (Johnson, 2000). According to Morrison et al. (2003), the essence of leadership traditionally has been the
Management Decision Vol. 47 No. 6, 2009 pp. 989-999 q Emerald Group Publishing Limited 0025-1747 DOI 10.1108/00251740910966695
ability to ﬁrst understand the theories and concepts of leadership and then to apply them in real life scenarios. The absence of effective leadership has had a signiﬁcant impact on the ability of organizations to implement and sustain strategic change initiatives. Reinertsen et al. (2005) suggest that leadership skills should include such elements as envisioning the future, establishing goals, communicating, rallying support for the vision, planning for its implementation and putting the plans in place. Degeling and Carr (2004) add that leader development is built on a foundation of cognitive, socio-emotional, and behavioral skills. These skills, supported by leader attributes...