Leadership and Theory

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What is Leadership? It means influencing, motivating and enabling other employees to contribute their best towards the effectiveness and success of the organization. It’s not only motivating and influencing individual but the goals can only be attained by mutual cooperation and cohesive behavior. Leadership has been studied since civilization but it was not given that much important like it’s given in today’s scenario. Leadership is not any type of quality but it’s an individual behavior. There are some qualities in person who helps him develop the characteristics of a Leader like positive attitude, high self-esteem, continuous self-study, training, evaluation and take positive things in life. A Leader is not the one who stands for his cause but he takes responsibility and motivates other employees of the organization. A Leader can be a motivation for employees and inspires himself as well as others to aim high and attain that aim. It has been noticed that good Leaders are those who had gained the trust and confidence their employees. And in gaining these, communication plays an important role. The most important thing is that people respect is knowledge. There are many situations which come in organization and they are not in our control but we can control our reactions. And Leader not only reacts positively but helps other employees to see the positive side of the situation. According to Trait theory, Individuals who takes leadership position has some good qualities or attributes compared to those who are non-leaders. This Trait theory is also known as Great Man theory. This theory focuses on the inbuilt quality which the leader has it in himself. In 1974, American Researcher named Ralf Stogdill had found that the leadership is not about single or small cluster of traits but it is based on complex groupings of trait and social interaction. This theory focuses on different types of major traits. And these traits were Physical Characteristics, Social Background, Cognitive Ability, Personality, Task Related, and Social. But this trait has attracted many criticisms like the research shows the inequality between leader and others. It only focuses on traits and characteristics of the leaders but they had not given importance to the followers. And the leaders are not able to fit themselves in the given structure. The Trait which is given doesn’t suit their leadership qualities. The research is also culturally determined because all the traits may not be the same for all the culture. Without being affected by Globalization, there are many major cultural differences exists between regions as well as within us. (Appendix 1)( Stogdill, R.M. (1974) Handbook of Leadership: A Survey of Theory and Research)(www.managementstudyguide.com) With the criticism of trait theory, it gave rise to Behavioural theory. This theory focuses on the behaviour of leader. The trait theory had only focused on the leader but here it focuses on both the leader as well as their behavior. As trait theory assumes that leaders are born but the behavior theory is away from this concept. This theory tells about what leaders do and how they behave towards their followers. In 1940’s, two universities of US had completed their research on Leadership and these universities were University of Michigan and Ohio State University. Two similar analytical frameworks are developed by the researcher. These two core dimensions are Concern for task and concern for people. The first dimension describes that the leader gives more important to the production or target. For them people are just the factors of production. And the other dimension is Relationship Behaviour which describes that the leader is more concerned about his follower’s need, problem and development. Three studies had provided the foundation of behavioural theories with the help of these two dimensions. Researchers at the University of Michigan and Ohio State University had differentiated two types of...
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