Adler, M. A. (1994). Male-Female power differences at work: A comparison of supervisor and policymakers. Sociological Inquiry, 64(1), 37-55.
* This article spoke of the positions of power between men and women, and how policymakers and supervisors distribute that power to men and women. In the work place, when considering for advancement, employers have undefined criteria such as personality characteristics and potential managerial qualities. These standards become the cause of inequality in authority and power at work place. Jobs that are available for women have low wages and also less authority. Similar research studies have shown parallel points, in that inequality is found at the workplace because of such gender based characteristics. Even though women were shown to be more educated, they do not accrue the same status. The researcher in this study used methodology to find these inequalities at the work place. The study consisted of four data points to test and used 531 women and 619 men for this data. The author collected data for power in wage labor, employment, sample characteristics and occupation by education. The results showed that men achieve higher positions and have a higher chance at a supervisory level and more authority than women. In the workplace, gender is a major part of determining positions of power. Also, it shows that education is more important to get supervisor positions, which is less effective for women. This study shows the inequality between men and women that makes men more prone to positions of power than women. The data and research clearly showed that women have substantially less access to positions of power and authority at work place than men, and that gender is the key factor in determining those positions. Policymakers and supervisors may indeed make regulations promoting equality but gender bias is still obviously exhibited.
Avolio, B. J., Mhatre, K., Norman, S. M., & Lester, P. (2009). The moderating...
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