Leadership and entrepreneurship_ assignment 1
Leadership and entrepreneurship have become more popular recently so that many researchers have been studied about these subjects and tried to find out their definitions and nature (Northouse, 2007; Kuratko and Hodgetts, 2007 and Deakins and Freel, 2009). It cannot be denied that there are a huge amount of people having leadership and entrepreneurship characteristic. In order to have a look closer about the leadership and entrepreneurship, the author will take the case of Conrad Hilton as an example to evaluate. However, before doing that, some significant leadership and entrepreneurship theories such as definitions and characteristics of different approaches will be reviewed critically. This essay will be divided into three parts. It will commence with theories of leadership and then focus on entrepreneurship and the last part will combine the theories with term of actual life by judging the characteristics of Conrad Hilton about his leadership and entrepreneurship characteristics. The first part aims to review leadership theories critically. It includes definitions, distinctive approaches and variety of factors that impact on leadership. There are a number of different definitions about leadership have been published (Stogdill, 1974). According to Northouse (2007), they are divided into six types such as focus of group process, personality perspective, act or behavior, power relationship, transformational process and skills perspective. However, Northouse (2007) states that there are four components such as: leadership is a process; leadership involves influence; leadership occurs in a group context and leadership involves goal attainment play a role as foundation for all of types. Based on this foundation, the widely accepted definition about leadership can be defined as follow: “a process whereby an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal” (Northouse, 2007, p.3) and this is also the suitable one related to discussion in this essay. From this definition, it can be seen that leadership is an interaction behavior between leaders and followers as well as this the definition also indicates the important of the factor “influence”. It is clear that without this factor, leadership will not exist. However, this factor does not only stand for the power of leader with followers but also followers with leader because this is two-way relationship. In addition, the second factor should be considered is “group”. Whatever the size and type of group such as a community, an organization or a small group, leadership can only occur in context of group. Although each person in each group can have different individual purpose, they still have the same goal and they influence each other to achieve that common goal. Obviously, common goal is one part of leadership. Last but not least, this definition of leadership considered attendance of goals. This means leadership has to guide the group achieve the goals. As can be seen from this definition, leadership can be any member in the group, it is not a particular person. This means in the process going to achieve common goals of the group, anyone can be a leader and has influence on others. According to Northouse (2007) the leader of a group has five key traits such as sociability, intelligence, self- confident, determination and integrity. Those five key traits have been utilized in order to adjudge employees’ leadership skills. The following issue of leadership theory is leadership’s nature. As the same situation with leadership definition, its nature also has a several opinions. Authors such as Jago (1982), Bass (1990), Burns (1978), Heller and Van Til (1983), Hollander (1992) considered leadership as a process, while author such as Bryman (1992) defined it as traits. Among those authors, some of them approached leadership as a prominent situation whereas others viewed it as an assigned one. As a viewpoint of Bryman...
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