University of Phoenix
Leadership and Change Management
In a free market economy, it is a given that there will be change. The manner in which this change is implemented can play an enormous part in the success of an organization. Change management "describes a structured approach to transitions from a present to a desired state, in individuals, teams, organizations and societies" (Wikipedia, 2006). The organization's leadership must identify the challenges associated with implementing the changes and facilitate a smooth transition. The following paragraphs examine some of the challenges faced by major organizations and detail their responses. Apple Andrea Goddard
At Apple, it is the people within the organization, not the money or computers, which are innovative and keep Apple successful. As Steve Jobs, CEO of Apple says, "Innovation has nothing to do with how many R&D dollars you have. When Apple came up with the Mac, IBM was spending at least 100 times more on R&D. It's not about money. It's about the people you have, how you're led, and how much you get it." (Linzmayer, para. 6, 2007). Jobs understands the impact that employees have on an organization and has used this knowledge to guide the corporation. This charismatic and transformational leadership has helped Apple to achieve success and remain innovative. Being opinionated and visionary has not always led to success as Apple fired Jobs in 1985 for this behavior. It is this same behavior that led to his rehire in 1997 (anon. 2002). Jobs demonstrates how a leader can change things how things are done by developing a new and appealing vision of the future. This vision and mission set the stage for change and then the teams implement necessary changes. Boeing Daeron Lockett
Boeing has enjoyed enormous success in the field of aviation. The 737 Jumbo Jet actually accounts for more than forty percent of worldwide commercial jet sales. The entire airline industry suffered devastating losses from the 9/11 tragedy in the United States. Along the way, Boeing had to institute a great deal of change to handle cut-throat competition. In addition, an earthquake destroyed a major building at its manufacturing facility in Washington. By account of surveys, there was a big disconnect between aircraft designers and those that actually assemble the crafts. Part of the response came as a direct result of the earthquake tragedy that at their manufacturing site. Office space was at a premium, so many of the designers were set up offices in the manufacturing plant (Price, 2004). This was a source of resistance as many of the white-collar workers considered their office jobs a badge of distinction. During the 90 days that the designers were in the plant, they were able to analyze the processes and tools to implement the design. What emerged was a revelation to both sides that things are completely different. In fact, so many successful ideas flowed freely between designer and manufacturer that many did not want to leave the plant after alternative offices had been set up. Like many large organization, Boeing suffered from vertical and horizontal communication problems. Some of the ideas instituted as response include: ·Open plan workspaces and common areas
·Communal cafes with mini-libraries and Whiteboard systems and lounge seating · A wide boardwalk joining the factory and offices for impromptu meetings and discussions, emblematic of a more unified work force Productivity increased dramatically thanks to the communications changes. Productivity increased by 50%, and the time it takes to build a 737 decreased from 24 days to 12. A simple facilities change grew into a great deal more as some engaging ideas, which was new communication between manufacturer and designer, flowed freely for 90 days. The result was changes to the entire organization. General Electric (GE) Tools for change management Sandra Welch...