Transformational Leadership: can achieve the goal and develop the organization.
Transformational leadership theory is one of the most important and widely accepted theories though it has some criticisms and arguments against it. James MacGregor Burns (1978) gave this new example of leadership; he stated leadership is either transactional or transformational (Bass and Riggio, 2006, p.3). The leaders who stimulate and motivate followers to achieve the goal and develop their leadership quality defined as transformational leaders. It directs the followers to achieve the highest level of performance, satisfaction, and commitment in the organization (Bass, 1985 as cited by Bass & Riggio, 2006). Transformational leaders inspire their followers to take the goal as challenge and give their best effort to achieve it. They focus on the followers need and empower them to grow their own leadership qualities (Bass & Riggio, 2006). Lievens et al., (1997) stated that change-centered leader is needed who can help the transformation process in the organization. They can lead their followers in the right way towards achieving the vision. Transformational leaders provide strong motivation to followers for the positive change what is necessary to pursue the goal. They increase follower’s confidence, creativity and courage to take challenge, which help them with the changeover process in organization (Howell & Avolio, 1989 as cited by Lievens et al., 1997). Some critiques argued that transformational leadership is anti-democratic, (Weber, 1997 as cited by Bass and Riggio 2006) particularly while dealing with charisma; described that the charismatic leaders direct followers out of problems with solutions, and inspirational leaders also highly directive in their means and methods. Bass and Riggio (2006) argued at the same time transformational leaders could share the visions and ideas which could be very much democratic. They engage the followers in the participatory effort of organization. The author of this essay strongly believes that transformational leadership is totally democratic rather than despotic. They focus on the followers need; they do not force but inspire and motivate to achieve the goal. For example, (Bass and Avolio, 1990 as cited by Dvir et al., 2002) stated that transformational leaders broaden followers’ ability to think, to create new ideas and ask about old-fashioned rules. Transformational leaders focus on develop of followers self management and self development (Avolio and Gibbons, 1988 as cited by Dvir et al., 2002).
Components of transformational leadership
Transformational leaders engage with the followers’ more than simple agreements, they behave with them for outstanding result by applying any of the four components of transformational leadership (Bass & Riggio, 2006). The four components are- 1. Idealized Influence- Followers identified them as a role model and can be counted to do the right things. 2. Inspirational Motivation- The leaders throw challenge to the followers by strong motivation and inspiration. 3. Intellectual Stimulation- Applying new techniques and innovation the leaders stimulate their followers. 4. Individualized Consideration- They count every individual is equally important for the organization and work as a mentor of them.
Some critiques have been arguing that these components of transformational leadership may not be practiced in real life. They explained if the respondents found that the leaders positive and negative sides; it would be difficult for them to differentiate the leaders’ transformational characteristics (Lievens et al.,1997). All the four components are highly correlated and clustered into one single factor (Hartog et al., 1994 as cited by Lievens, 1997). However, Bass and Riggio (2006) stated that these four components have been made for the conceptualization and measurement of transformational leadership qualities. Armstrong et al.,...
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