Defining Management and Leadership
• “Managers perform functions in organisations and hold a particular formal title and/or fulfil a role” (Brooks 2006 p.152) • “Leaders … aim to influence and guide others into pursuing particular objectives or visions of the future and to stimulate them into wanting to follow.” (Brooks 2006 p.152)
• Management & Leadership are different • Need both for an organisation to prosper • Strong Management without leadership = stifling & bureaucratic • Strong Leadership without management = meaningless & misdirected change • To be effective organisations need both competent management and skilled leadership
Traits are distinctive characteristics that distinguish leaders from non-leaders. • Early trait theories identified: – Physical characteristics (height, appearance) – Personality characteristics (‘Big Five’, extrovert) – Skills and abilities (intelligence) – Social factors (interpersonal skills)
Great Man Theory
• Leaders are born and not made. • Great leaders will arise when there is a great need.
• Early research on leadership was based on the study of people who were already great leaders. • The idea of the Great Man also strayed into the mythic domain, with notions that in times of need, a Great Man would arise
e.g. Abraham Lincoln, Martin Luther King, Margaret Thatcher
Leadership traits and skills identified by Stogdill in 1974 Traits - Adaptable to situations - Alert to social environment - Ambitious and achievement-orientated - Assertive - Cooperative - Decisive - Dependable - Dominant (desire to influence others) - Energetic (high activity level) - Persistent - Self-confident - Tolerant of stress - Willing to assume responsibility Skills - Clever (intelligent) - Conceptually skilled - Creative - Diplomatic and tactful - Fluent in speaking - Knowledgeable about group task - Organised (administrative...