Leadership in organistaion
Yukl & Van Fleet (Handbook of I-O Psychol 1990) Theory and research on leadership in organizations Leadership is defined as a process that includes influencing the task objectives and strategies of a group or organization, influencing people in the organization to implement the strategies and achieve the objectives, influencing group maintenance and identification, and influencing the culture of the organization. Trait approach emphasizes the personal attributes of leaders. Traits offer the potential to explain why people seek leadership positions and why they act the way they do when they occupy these positions. Much progress has been made in trait research, and it is evident that some traits (e.g., emotional maturity, integrity) and skills (e.g., technical, conceptual, interpersonal skills) increase the likelihood of leadership success, even though they do not guarantee success and their relative importance depends on the situation. However, the potential contribution of the trait approach continues to be limited by the lack of attention to variables mediating the relationship between leader traits and effectiveness criteria. Behavioral approach emphasizes what leaders actually do on the job and the relationship of this behavior to leader effectiveness. Leadership behaviors were first into a two-factor model (task-oriented (initiating structure) and people-oriented (consideration)). However, the two-factor approach did not contribute much to our understanding of leadership effectiveness as the relative importance of specific forms of this behavior varies from situation to situation, yet this approach does not consider situational influence. Therefore, more research on specific aspects of behavior is needed to identify the situations where each type of behavior is relevant. If possible, intervening variables mediating the effects of leader behavior should be included to allow analysis of causal linkages. As the descriptive studies...
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