Leadership

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AU/ACSC/061/1999-04

AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY

LEADERSHIP EFFECTIVENESS AND GENDER

By
Christine R. Gedney, Major, USAF

A Research Report Submitted to the Faculty
In Partial Fulfillment of the Graduation Requirements

Advisor: Lt Col Sharon A. Branch

Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama
April 1999

Distribution A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited

Disclaimer
The views expressed in this academic research paper are those of the author(s) and do not reflect the official policy or position of the US government or the Department of Defense. In accordance with Air Force Instruction 51-303, it is not copyrighted, but is the property of the United States government.

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Contents
Page DISCLAIMER .................................................................................................................... ii PREFACE .......................................................................................................................... iv ABSTRACT.........................................................................................................................v INTRODUCTION ...............................................................................................................1 Qualities of Effective Leaders .......................................................................................1 Definitions of Leadership ..............................................................................................3 Why does this matter? .............................................................................................3 Discussion of Findings ............................................................................................7 Historical Conclusions.............................................................................................7 CONTINGENCY LEADERSHIP THEORIES...................................................................9 LEADERSHIP CHARACTERISTICS AND GENDER...................................................18 BARRIERS FOR WOMEN IN LEADERSHIP ................................................................25 CONCLUSIONS................................................................................................................32 BIBLIOGRAPHY..............................................................................................................35

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Preface
After serving in the Air Force for the past 16 years, I have come to the realization that there are still many hurdles facing women as they strive for senior leadership positions in our armed forces. While this paper served to highlight some of the more recent events and attitudes surrounding the topic of leadership effectiveness and gender, it does not comprise the final conclusion on this topic. This paper serves to inform the reader that there has been much progress in terms of women and the way they are perceived as leaders. But on the other hand, this research leaves room for further analysis on the topic and begs the question, is we really giving full and equals access to top positions to both our men and women in uniform? I would like to thank my research advisor, Lt Col Branch, for her assistance in putting this, my first, and perhaps my only, thesis paper of my career, together. She provided valuable guidance throughout the process and without her aid, this paper would not have been possible. I would also like to thank the professionals at the Air University Library for their assistance in helping me locate all my reference material with ease. They are worth their weight in gold, and helped me find pertinent information quickly and painlessly.

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AU/ACSC/061/1999-04

Abstract
This research paper on the subject of Leadership Effectiveness and Gender attempts to conduct a focused amount of research to answer the question about the correlation between gender and leadership effectiveness. It...
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