Leadership

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Introduction
The ever changing environment and especially the double-dip recession which has an impact on a global scale, meant Paragon software to be affected badly too. Due to the constant environmental change leadership has become an important attribute of management in almost all the organizations, including Paragon. Without leadership organizations will become static, will not develop and progress even they may be well organized (Hannagan, 2008). Although many individuals tried to unravel the leadership thinking ever since early 1900s, leadership and the study of this phenomenon has in fact roots in the beginning of civilizations. From Egyptian rulers, to Greek heroes, to Roman emperors and biblical patriarchs all have one thing in common –Leadership(Stone and Patterson ,2005). Leadership defined.

Over time the leadership concept encountered a wide range of definitions and interpretations from simple terms to more specifically interpretations. At its simplest, leadership is concerned with ‘getting others to follow’ or ‘getting people to do things willingly’ (Mullins, 2012,p 373) .Leadership can be exercised as a position within an organisation or at individual level because of personal knowledge or wisdom. While Crainer(1995)suggests that leadership has over four hundred definitions, Bass(1990) concludes that the number of leadership definitions could be equal with the number of people who attempted to define the concept)(cited in Mullins,2010,p373). For instance, Stogdill(1974)(cited in Tjosvold,1995,p48),a pioneer in leadership research defined this concept as “the process of influencing the activities of an organized group in its effort toward goal setting and goal achievement” .Further Bass(1990)(cited in Tjosvold,1995,p48) defines leadership as an interaction between two or more group members ,who structure the situation and alter member’s perceptions and expectations. In addition Kotter(1990)(cited in Wordpress,2010) suggests that leadership has the purpose to produce change and movement in people’s behaviour.In trying to define leadership we cannot forget Peter Drucker (2001, p 271) who suggests that leadership has the ultimate task of creating “human energies and human vision”. Furthermore Drucker believes that leadership’s purpose is thinking through the organisation’s mission, defining and establishing it in a clear and visible way. Although an unequivocal definition of leadership has not been agreed on, from the multitude of definitions it can be asserted that key players in the leadership process are the leaders and their followers and subordinates. Leadership Trait approach

Researchers began to study leadership in the early twentieth century. According to Northouse(2007)(cited in Worldpress,2010),the Traits Theory was one of the first systematic attempt to study leadership. This theory ascribes certain inherited characteristics or personality traits, attributed exclusively to leaders, distinguishing them from followers. This approach focuses on the person in the job rather than the job itself. Acknowledging the surveys of Smith and Krueger up to 1933,as well as the efforts made by W.O Jenkins, who reviewed 140 lists of leadership qualities suggested for groups of children, military, business and professional personnel ,Stogdill (1948)(cited in Sustainable Leadership,2006) found that factors consistently associated with leadership were characteristics such as “capacity, achievement, responsibility, participation, and status”. These characteristics defined leaders from the perspective of follower’s dynamic environment. Another leader trait that has been and it still is widely discussed is charisma.Max Weber (1947)(cited in Judge ,2006) was the first scholar to write about charisma as a type of authority as form of control that people will accept.Weber’s assertion that charismatic leaders appears in stressful or changing times is reminded by John Gardner in “Leaders and Followers”(1987) ,and seems to be...
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