Purpose of study
The main purpose of this project is to provide an elaborative, descriptive study on the perceived differences and similarities between leaders and mangers in an organizational context and to see as whether any overlapping exists between the two as well as the characteristics of both. From Organizational Context, it is an important topic as knowing that leaders can be more effective or the managers or may be in some places organization would need the qualities of the manager and in some places organization might need the qualities of the leader. So for knowing the attributes related to leader versus manager. Furthermore, it highlights as to how both leaders and managers contribute to total quality management in an organization in enhancing business performance and organizational success as a whole. It also focuses on how both differ on basis of vision establishment, human development and networking, vision execution and vision outcome on a broader term as well as in terms of motivation, thinking and acting.
Organizations need both strong leaders and strong management for optimal effectiveness. There is a continuing controversy about the difference between leadership and management. A Manager is the person responsible for planning and directing the work of a group of individuals, monitoring their work, and taking corrective action when necessary. (F. John Reh) Not all mangers exercise leadership. Often it is assumed that anyone in a management position is a leader. “Definition of leadership is that leadership is the art of motivating a group of people to act towards achieving a common goal”. (Susan Ward). Leadership is performed by people who are not in management positions (e.g. informal leader). Some scholars argue that “although management and leadership overlap the two activities are not synonymous” (Bass, 2010). The degree of overlap is a point of disagreement (Yukl, 2010). Bennis states “Managers are people who do things right and leaders are people who do the right thing” (Wesley, 1997). Mainly the controversy between a leader and a manager begins from the point that managers are people who do things right and leaders are those people who do the right thing. When both the things combine that is doing things right and doing the right thing, only then an organization would be able to gain the pace of increasing organizational performance. A well balanced organization should have a mix of leaders and managers to succeed, and in fact what they really need is a few great leaders and many first-class managers (Kotterman, 2006). Leadership and management entail a unique set of activities or functions. Leadership is defined by Peter Drucker as “The only definition of a leader is someone who has followers. To gain followers requires influence but doesn’t exclude the lack of integrity in achieving this” (Yukl, 1989), whereas management is defined in terms of organizational goals. The business excellence frameworks further differentiate both managers and leaders in terms of organizational performance in terms of EFQM model (formerly known as the European Foundation for Quality Management), Balanced scorecard and SMART system. The idea from combining the sayings of the above authors can be that Leadership is an intention of climbing to next level, and Management is the process of efficiently executing the plan. “Leadership has long-term effect, management has short term goals” (Ashim .G 2009). Organizational psychologists and sociologists, on the other hand, became interested in the various roles that were played in all kinds of groups, and the term "leader" was defined as the person who played a key role in group decision making and setting direction and tone for the group. For psychologists, manager was a profession, not a key role in a group. (Ronald E. Riggio). Good Leadership skills are of no use when there are no management skills to support it. It...
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