There is the age old question of what is the difference between a manager and a leader? Most people will say that you can’t be a manager without being a leader. Leadership and management are an ongoing development.This search for the characteristics or traits of leaders has been ongoing for centuries. Some people believe they go hand in hand and some believe they are two complete different things. This continues development had resulted in many different theories over the centuries. In this paper we will discuss in detail, the most common and recent theories and what each one means as well as well as what is it that leaders and managers do, can leaders and managers be one in the same. I will also explain the difference between managers and leaders.
The definition for leadership is the action of leading a group of people or an organization. Another common definition for leadership is as a process of social influence in which one person can enlist the aid and support of others in the accomplishment of a common task. Management is defined in the business and organizational role as the act of getting people together to accomplish desired goals and objectives using available resources efficiently and effectively. Management comprises planning, organizing, staffing, leading or directing, and controlling an organization.
A Timeline of Management and Leadership
1880 - Scientific Management
"In the past man was first. In the future the system will be first." - Frederick Taylor 1929 – Taylorism
1932 - The Hawthorne Studies
Elton Mayo becomes the first to question the behavioral assumptions of scientific management. The studies concluded that human factors were often more important than physical conditions in motivating employees to greater productivity.
1946 - Organization Development
Social scientist Kurt Lewin launches the Research Center for Group Dynamics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. His contributions in change theory, action research, and action learning earn him the title of the “Father of Organization Development:” the systematic application of behavioral science knowledge at various levels (group, intergroup, and total organization) to bring about planned change. 1949 - Sociotechnical Systems Theory
A group of researchers from London's Tavistock Institute of Human Relations, led by Eric Trist, studied a South Yorkshire coal mine in 1949. Their research leads in the development of the Sociotechnical Systems Theory which considers both the social and the technical aspects when designing jobs. It marks a 180-degree departure from Frederick Taylor's scientific management. There are four basic components to sociotechnical theory: * environment subsystem
* social subsystem
* technical subsystem
* organizational design.
1954 - Hierarchy of Needs
Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory is published in his book Motivation and Personality. This provides a framework for gaining employees' commitment.
1954 - Leadership/Management
Drucker writes The Practice of Management and introduces the 5 basic roles of managers. He writes: The first question in discussing organization structure must be: What is our business and what should it be? Organization structure must be designed so as to make possible the attainment of objectives of the business for five, ten, fifteen years hence." 1959 - Hygiene and Motivational Factors
Frederick Herzberg developed a list of factors which are closely based on Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, except it more closely related to work. Hygiene factors must be present in the job before motivators can be used to stimulate the workers. 1960 - Theory X and Theory Y
Douglas McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y principles influence the design and implementation of personnel policies and practices. Late 1960s - Action Learning
An Unheralded British academic was invited to try out his theories in Belgium —...