1.What does the chapter-opening story about the conviction and imprisonment of Martha Stewart suggest about punishment in the United States? a.The more you steal, the bigger the penalty.
b.Wealthy and powerful corporate executives are part of the population we think of as "criminal." c. The U.S. criminal justice system has an anti-corporation bias. d. Corporate executives are never subject to arrest and prosecution.
(Factual; answer: b; page 220)
2.Which of the following concepts refers to “the recognized violation of cultural norms”? a.deviance
(Conceptual; answer: a; page 220)
3.“Crime” differs from “deviance” in that crime:
a.is always more serious.
b.is usually less serious.
c.refers to a violation of norms enacted into law.
d.involves a larger share of the population.
(Conceptual; answer: c; page 220)
4.Every society tries to regulate the behavior of individuals; this general process is called ______. a.neighborhood watch
d.the legal system
(Conceptual; answer: c; page 220)
5.What concept refers to the formal system that responds to alleged violations of the law using police, courts, and prison officials? a.the normative system
d.the criminal justice system
(Conceptual; answer: d; page 220)
6.Based on your reading, it would be correct to say that biological approaches offer: a.a very limited understanding of crime.
b. a good explanation of most crimes.
c. a good explanation of violent crime.
d.a good explanation of property crime.
(Applied; answer: a; pages 220-221)
7.Read the four statements below. Which comes closest to the correct view of the role of biology in causing people to commit crimes? a.Males with certain body types commit the most serious crimes. b.Lombroso proved a century ago that biological factors are the major cause of crime. c.Biological factors may have a real but small effect in causing some people to commit crimes. d.Genetics research has succeeded in explaining most criminality.
(Applied; answer: c; page 221)
8. Walter Reckless and Simon Dinitz claimed that “good boys” have the ability to rein in deviant impulses. They called their analysis: a.differential opportunity theory.
d.differential association theory.
(Conceptual; answer: b; page 221)
9.The value of psychological theories of deviance is limited because: a.very few people experience an “unsuccessful socialization.” b.there has been very little research of this kind.
c.there is no way to distinguish “normal” from “abnormal” people. d.most people who commit crimes have normal personalities.
(Factual; answer: d; page 221)
10.Read the following four statements about the social foundations of deviance. Select the one statement that is FALSE. a.Deviance exists only in relation to cultural norms. b.There are many acts that are always and everywhere deviant. c.People become deviant as others define them that way. d.What the norms are and how people apply them involve social power.
(Applied; answer: b; page 222)
11.Assume you were listening to a lecture on Durkheim’s approach to deviance. Which of the following statements might well be the focus of the lecture? a.Deviance is a normal element of social organization. b.Deviance is a dysfunctional element of social organization. c.Deviance is less common in modern societies.
d.Deviance is defined by the rich and used against the poor.
(Factual; answer: a; pages 222-223)
12.Which of the...