The first lathe machine that was ever developed was the two-person lathe machine which was designed by the Egyptians in about 1300 BC. Primarily, there are two things that are achieved in this lathe machine set-up. The first is the turning of the wood working piece manually by a rope and the second is the cutting of shapes in the wood by the use of a sharp tool. As civilizations progressed, there have been constant modifications and improvements over the original two-person lathe machine, most importantly on the production of the rotary motion.
Lathe machine is the single most versatile machine in the engineering workshop. A lathe is a machine tool which spins a block of material to perform various operations such as cutting, turning, facing, threading , sanding ,knurling, drilling, or deformation such as metal spinning with tools that are applied to the work piece to create an object which has symmetry about an axis of rotation.
This machine has the main rotary movement and function as a modifier form and size of objects to the way things are cut up with a notching. Position of object in accordance with the rotary axis machine and hack silent, moving to the right, left to the direction of the axis engine of job slashing. Lathe get charged on the fixed belt V through many of the motor is placed under the control of the heads is still one of the 27-speed, which is set in a geometric progress logically, can be obtained.
This machine tools one of the most important in the metalworking industry is the lathe. A lathe operates on the principle of a rotating workpiece and a fixed cutting tool. The cutting tool is feed into the workpiece, which rotates about its own Z-axis, causing the workpiece to be formed to the desired shape. The maximum spindle speed of lathes is around 4000 rpm but for the large lathes the speed maybe around 200 rpm. The figure 1.1 below shows the lathe machine that use for many operations to remove materials as needed.
2. Main Body Part
There are four main groups of components that comprise the basis for all engine lathes. These consist of the bed, headstock, tailstock, and the carriage as shown as figure 2.1.
The bed is the foundation of the engine lathe. The bed is a heavy, rugged casting made to support the working parts of the lathe. The size and mass of the bed gives the rigidity necessary for accurate engineering tolerances required in manufacturing today. On top of the bed are machined ways that guide and align the carriage and tailstock, as they are move from one end of the lathe to the other.
The headstock is clamped atop the bed at the left-hand end of the lathe. The headstock contains the motor that drives the spindle through a series of gears. The workpiece is mounted to the spindle through means of a chuck, faceplate. Since the headstock contains the motor and drive gears, the speed or RPM at which the spindle rotates is also controlled here. The headstock also contains the power feed adjustments, which are the controls for the rate at which the carriage moves when the power feed lever in engaged.
The tailstock is used to support the other end of workpiece. It can slide along the track of the lathe machine and can be clamp at any position of the tracks. Basically the tailstock is located at the center in two ways which are whether it fixed or it can rotate with the workpiece. For drilling the axial holes the reamers and drills is mounted on the tailstock quill.
The carriage assembly moves longitudinally along the ways between the headstock and the tailstock. The carriage is composed of the cross slide, compound rest, saddle, and apron. The saddle is an H shaped casting mounted on top of the ways, and supports the cross slide and compound rest. The apron is...