Running Head: PHYSICAL, COGNITIVE, AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT
Adjustment to change is part of life in the entirety of the lifespan, and this applies to late adulthood as well- where change may be decline. Aging is an inevitable part of life, but there are changes one can make in lifestyle that can become positive or negative factors in the areas of physical, cognitive, and social development or decline. One change in each area would be freedom or limitations of ability. One change in cognitive development could be dementia, or maintenance of memory. And lastly, one change in social development is social isolation or social connectedness.
There are several factors of health and lifestyle that can affect mobility. Muscle strength is one of these components, which declines faster in later adulthood than earlier in life. Berk (2010) states that muscle mass after age 70-80 declines about 30-50%. Bone strength is also lost due to loss of bone mass, and small bone cracks related to stress (Berk, 2010). Flexability and strength also diminish during this time in late adulthood. Exercise and physical activity early and even late in life is correlated with greater mobility later in life. Even older adults can benefit from excise. Specially planned exercise programs can create improvements in mobility for seniors (Berk, 2010). Individuals up to age 80 who take up an exercise program show improvements in mobility and other areas. Load bearing exercise promotes muscle size and strength and blood flow to muscles which can lead to better walking speed, balance, posture, and ability to go about daily activities. Exercise also leads to more blood circulation to the brain and less tissue loss, which helps to protect brain structures (Berk, 2010). Intake of vitamin D is also essential for protecting the bones and thus maintaining mobility.
Memory is one cognitive decline that occurs in old age. Older individuals take in information more slowly, thus holding on to less...
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