The LHC was built in collaboration with over 10,000 scientists and engineers from over 100 countries, as well as hundreds of universities and laboratories. It lies in a tunnel 27 kilometers in circumference, as deep as 175 meters beneath the Franco Swiss border near Geneva Switzerland. As of 2012, the LHC remains one of the largest and most complex experimental facilities ever built .The 3.8-metre wide concrete-lined tunnel, constructed between 1983 and 1988. It crosses the border between Switzerland and France at four points, with most of it in France. Surface buildings hold ancillary equipment such as compressors, ventilation equipment, control electronics and refrigeration plants. The collider tunnel contains two adjacent parallel beam lines that intersect at four points, each containing a proton beam, which travel in opposite directions around the ring. Some 1,232 dipole magnets keep the beams on their circular path in order to maximize the chances of interaction between the particles in the four intersection points, where the two beams will cross. The LHC physics program is mainly based on Proton- proton collisions. The total cost of the project is anticipated to be between €3.2 to €6.4 billion. The construction of LHC was approved in 1995 with a budget of 2.6 billion Swiss francs (€1.6 billion), with another 210 million francs (€140 million) towards the cost of the experiments. However, cost over-runs, estimated in a major review in 2001 at around 480 million francs (€300 million) for the accelerator, and 50... [continues]
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